Genotype-based phenotyping heralds a new taxonomy for inflammatory bowel disease.
ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has traditionally been categorized as either ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease on the basis of clinical, radiologic, and histologic criteria. Within these diseases, however, significant heterogeneity is observed, suggesting the existence of phenotypic subtypes, based on features such as location and behavior of disease. Evidence for a possible genetic basis of these subgroups first emerged in the 1990s from epidemiologic studies in multiply affected families. Recent advances in our understanding of the genetics of IBD, in particular the identification of NOD2/CARD15, have provided the opportunity to explore the genetic basis for this heterogeneity. This article reviews recent studies investigating the contribution of genetics to IBD phenotype. Although many of the genes remain unidentified, the emerging data suggests that IBD comprises a heterogeneous family of oligogenic inflammatory disorders in which the specific clinical manifestations of disease in any individual are determined by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. These data have validated the approach of classifying patients into accurately defined clinical subgroups, and they raise the possibility that a genetic basis for the observed disease heterogeneity may account for the discrepant findings from earlier genetic studies. A future molecular classification will provide the framework to understanding the different biologic mechanisms that underlie the clinical subgroups of IBD and, by patient stratification, permit the unraveling of the complex interaction between the genetic and environmental causes of disease.
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ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis and Crohn's disease are heterogeneous systemic diseases characterised by granulomatous inflammation. Caspase recruitment domain (CARD)15 is a major susceptibility gene for Crohn's disease, and specifically for ileal and fibrostenotic subtypes. The C-C chemokine receptor (CCR)5 gene has been associated with both parenchymal pulmonary sarcoidosis and perianal Crohn's disease. This study explored associations between CARD15 polymorphisms, CCR5 haplotype and distinct pulmonary sarcoidosis subtypes. 185 Caucasian sarcoidosis patients were genotyped for CARD15 and CCR5 polymorphisms. The genetic data were compared with 347 healthy controls and were examined for associations with serial pulmonary function tests and chest radiographs. CARD15 genotypes did not differ between the unselected sarcoidosis cohort and controls. However, patients carrying the functional 2104T (702W) polymorphism were more likely to have radiographic stage IV disease at 4-yr follow-up. All patients possessing both CARD15 2104T and CCR5 HHC haplotype had stage IV disease at presentation. Carriage of 2104T was associated with worse forced expiratory volume in 1 s, whereas carriage of the CARD15 1761G (587R) polymorphism was associated with better lung function. For the first time, an association between two CARD15 polymorphisms and specific sarcoidosis phenotypes has been demonstrated, as well as an additive effect of possessing CARD15 2104T and CCR5 HHC haplotype.European Respiratory Journal 09/2009; 35(2):324-30. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review all available data and recommend a definition for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) based on published peer-reviewed data, whether already in use or not, to guide clinical diagnosis and future research. Literature review and expert consensus. Professional society. None. None. A systematic review of the published peer-reviewed medical literature, by querying MEDLINE databases, to identify studies evaluating the epidemiology or phenotypic aspects of PCOS. The Task Force drafted the initial report, following a consensus process via electronic communication, which was then reviewed and critiqued by the Androgen Excess and PCOS (AE-PCOS) Society AE-PCOS Board of Directors. No section was finalized until all members were satisfied with the contents, and minority opinions noted. Statements were not included that were not supported by peer-reviewed evidence. Based on the available data, it is the view of the AE-PCOS Society Task Force that PCOS should be defined by the presence of hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical), ovarian dysfunction (oligo-anovulation and/or polycystic ovaries), and the exclusion of related disorders. However, a minority considered the possibility that there may be forms of PCOS without overt evidence of hyperandrogenism, but recognized that more data are required before validating this supposition. Finally, the Task Force recognized and fully expects that the definition of this syndrome will evolve over time to incorporate new research findings.Fertility and sterility 11/2008; 91(2):456-88. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and Aim: The diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of CARD15 genotyping in Crohn's disease (CD) for daily clinical practice has not been investigated so far. We therefore analyzed whether CARD15 variants are independent predictive factors for small bowel stenosis in CD evaluated by magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE). On the basis of these findings, the potential implications for patient management were investigated. Methods: Eighty CD patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of small bowel stenosis were included. All patients were genotyped for the CARD15 variants c.2104C > T (p.R702W), c.2722G > C (p.G908R), and c.3019_3020insC (p.Leu1007fsX1008) and examined by MRE of the small bowel. Results:CARD15 variants were found in 40 (50%) patients. MRE identified 31 (38%) patients with small bowel stenoses. Twenty-five of the 40 (62%) patients with at least one CARD15 variant were diagnosed of intestinal stenosis by MRE (odds ratio [OR] = 9.44; confidence interval [CI] 3.21–27.77; P = 0.00028, Bonferroni corrected). Particularly, the presence of the 1007fs variant was associated with an increased risk of an intestinal stenosis (OR = 12.00, CI 3.47–41.54, P = 0.00042, Bonferroni corrected). Twenty-one of 31 (68%) patients with stenoses required surgical intervention, with 13 of these 21 (62%) patients carrying the 1007fs variant. Conclusion: In the largest prospective study analyzing the diagnostic value of CARD15 variants in CD patients performed so far, we identified the 1007fs variant as strong predictor for intestinal stenoses with need for surgery in CD patients. Genotyping could therefore be an important diagnostic tool in clinical practice for identifying high-risk patients with specific diagnostic and therapeutic needs. Moreover, MRE is an excellent technique for diagnosing small bowel stenoses.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 11/2006; 12(12):1114 - 1121. · 5.12 Impact Factor