Status of maternal and new born care at first referral units in the state of West Bengal.
ABSTRACT A study was conducted in 12 First Referral Units (FRUs), selected through multistage sampling, from 6 districts of West Bengal. Infrastructure facilities, record keeping, referral system and MCH indicators related to newborn care were documented. Data was collected by review of records, interview and observation using a pre-designed proforma. Inadequate infrastructure facilities (e.g. no sanctioned posts of specialists, no blood bank at rural hospitals declared as First Referral Units etc.); poor utilization of equipment like neonatal resuscitation sets, radiant warmer etc, lack of training of the service providers were evident. Records/registers were available but incomplete. Referral system was found to be almost nonexistent. Most of the deliveries (86.1%) were normal delivery. Deliveries (87.71%) and immediate neonatal resuscitation (94.9%) were done mostly by nursing personnel. Institution based maternal, perinatal and early neonatal mortality rates were found to be 5.6, 62.4 and 25.2 per 1000 live births respectively. Eclampsia (48.9%), hemorrhage (17.7%), puerperal sepsis (7.1%) were reported to be major causes of maternal mortality. Common causes of early neonatal mortality were birth asphyxia (54.3%), sepsis (14.6%) and prematurity/LBW (12.4%).
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ABSTRACT: Background: The supracondylar process of the humerus, which is also called the supra-epitrochlear, epicondylar, epicondylic process or a supratrochlear spur, is a hook-like, bony spine of variable size that may project distally from the anteromedial surface of the humerus. It represents the embryologic vestigial remnant of climbing animals and seen in many reptiles, most marsupials, cats, lemurs and American monkeys. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty dried humeri were studied from department of Anatomy, Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur, Karnataka, India. The bones were examined for supracondylar process. On finding, the dimensions were recorded and photographed. Results: Out of 240 dried humeri examined we found only 1 humerus of the left side with an osseous spine on the anteromedial surface. The incidence calculated in this study was 0.41%. Conclusion: The supracondylar process is frequently misjudged as a pathological condition of the bone rather than as a normal anatomical variation. Though, this process has been of more interest to anatomists and anthropologists because of a possible link to the origins and relations of the human races than to clinicians, many of whom are not aware of its occasional presence. It is usually clinically silent, but may become symptomatic by presenting as a mass or can be associated with symptoms of median nerve compression and claudication of the brachial artery.Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR. 01/2014; 8(1):1-3.
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ABSTRACT: In the context of inadequate public spending on health care in India (0.9% of the GDP); government liberalized its policies in the form of subsidized lands and tax incentives, resulting in the mushrooming of private hospitals and clinics in India. Paradoxically, a robust framework was not developed for the regulation of these health care providers, resulting in disorganized health sector, inadequate financing models, and lack of prioritization of services, as well as a sub-optimal achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). We systematically reviewed the evidence base regarding regulation of private hospitals, applicability of private-public mix, state of health insurance and effective policy development for India, while seeking lessons on regulation of private health systems, from South African (a developing country) and Australian (a developed country) health care systems.Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR. 02/2014; 8(2):1-6.