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Kasper, D. et al. Loss of the chloride channel ClC-7 leads to lysosomal storage disease and neurodegeneration. EMBO J. 24, 1079−1091

Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie,Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
The EMBO Journal (Impact Factor: 10.75). 04/2005; 24(5):1079-91. DOI: 10.1038/sj.emboj.7600576
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT ClC-7 is a chloride channel of late endosomes and lysosomes. In osteoclasts, it may cooperate with H(+)-ATPases in acidifying the resorption lacuna. In mice and man, loss of ClC-7 or the H(+)-ATPase a3 subunit causes osteopetrosis, a disease characterized by defective bone resorption. We show that ClC-7 knockout mice additionally display neurodegeneration and severe lysosomal storage disease despite unchanged lysosomal pH in cultured neurons. Rescuing their bone phenotype by transgenic expression of ClC-7 in osteoclasts moderately increased their lifespan and revealed a further progression of the central nervous system pathology. Histological analysis demonstrated an accumulation of electron-dense material in neurons, autofluorescent structures, microglial activation and astrogliosis. Like in human neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, there was a strong accumulation of subunit c of the mitochondrial ATP synthase and increased amounts of lysosomal enzymes. Such alterations were minor or absent in ClC-3 knockout mice, despite a massive neurodegeneration. Osteopetrotic oc/oc mice, lacking a functional H(+)-ATPase a3 subunit, showed no comparable retinal or neuronal degeneration. There are important medical implications as defects in the H(+)-ATPase and ClC-7 can underlie human osteopetrosis.

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Available from: Rosa Planells-Cases, Jul 27, 2015
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    • "This acidification has been widely reported to be produced by vacuolar H + - ATPases (Marshansky and Futai, 2008), coupled to vesicular ClC chloride transporters (Jentsch, 2007) that neutralize the charge gradient produced by proton pumping. Defects in genes encoding these transporters produce spectacular phenotypes in knockout mice or human patients (Kornak et al., 2000; Gü nther et al., 2003; Kasper et al., 2005; Poë t et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vesicular H(+)-ATPases and ClC-chloride transporters are described to acidify intracellular compartments, which also express the highly conserved Na(+)/H(+) exchangers NHE6, NHE7, and NHE9. Mutations of these exchangers cause autism-spectrum disorders and neurodegeneration. NHE6, NHE7, and NHE9 are hypothesized to exchange cytosolic K(+) for H(+) and alkalinize vesicles, but this notion has remained untested in K(+) because their intracellular localization prevents functional measurements. Using proton-killing techniques, we selected a cell line that expresses wild-type NHE7 at the plasma membrane, enabling measurement of the exchanger's transport parameters. We found that NHE7 transports Li(+) and Na(+), but not K(+), is nonreversible in physiological conditions and is constitutively activated by cytosolic H(+). Therefore, NHE7 acts as a proton-loading transporter rather than a proton leak. NHE7 mediates an acidification of intracellular vesicles that is additive to that of V-ATPases and that accelerates endocytosis. This study reveals an unexpected function for vesicular Na(+)/H(+) exchangers and provides clues for understanding NHE-linked neurological disorders.
    Cell Reports 04/2014; 7(3). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.03.054 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    • "–/– mice (Kasper et al., 2005), no increase in cathepsin D levels was detected by immunoblot (Fig. 5B). Similarly to ClC-7-deficient mice (Wartosch et al., 2009), the autophagic marker LC3-II was increased in cerebellum (Fig. 5C) and kidney (not shown) of this one mutant calf compared to a control calf. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chloride/proton exchange by the lysosomal anion transporter ClC-7/Ostm1 is of pivotal importance for the physiology of lysosomes and bone resorption. Mice lacking either ClC-7 or Ostm1 develop a lysosomal storage disease and mutations in either protein have been found to underlie osteopetrosis in mice and humans. Some human disease-causing CLCN7 mutations accelerate the usually slow voltage-dependent gating of ClC-7/Ostm1. However, it has remained unclear whether the fastened kinetics is indeed causative for the disease. Here we identified and characterized a new deleterious ClC-7 mutation in Belgian Blue Cattle with a severe symptomatology including peri-natal lethality and in most cases gingival hamartomas. By autozygosity mapping and genome-wide sequencing we found a handful of candidate variants, including a cluster of three private SNPs causing the substitution of a conserved tyrosine in the CBS2 domain of ClC-7 by glutamine. The case for ClC-7 was strengthened by subsequent examination of affected calves that revealed severe osteopetrosis. The Y750Q mutation largely preserved the lysosomal localization and assembly of ClC-7/Ostm1, but drastically accelerated its activation by membrane depolarization. These data provide first evidence that accelerated ClC-7/Ostm1 gating per se is deleterious, highlighting a physiological importance of the slow voltage-activation of ClC-7/Ostm1 in lysosomal function and bone resorption.
    Disease Models and Mechanisms 10/2013; 7(1). DOI:10.1242/dmm.012500 · 5.54 Impact Factor
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    • "Fig. 2D). In line with this, F1 and F3 −/−T+ mutants still showed the neurodegenerative phenotype previously described in −/−T− mice [7], although survival was considerably longer. Fig. 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the 2Cl(-)/1H(+)-exchanger ClC-7 impair osteoclast function and cause different types of osteoclast-rich osteopetrosis. However, it is unknown to what extent ClC-7 function has to be reduced to become rate-limiting for bone resorption. In osteoclasts from osteopetrosis patients expression of the mutated ClC-7 protein did not correlate with disease severity and resorption impairment. Therefore, a series of transgenic mice expressing ClC-7 in osteoclasts at different levels was generated. Crossing of these mice with Clcn7(-/-) mutants rescued the osteopetrotic phenotype to variable degrees. One resulting double transgenic line mimicked human autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. The trabecular bone of these mice showed a reduction of osteoblast numbers, osteoid, and osteoblast marker gene expression indicative of reduced osteoblast function. In osteoclasts from these mutants ClC-7 expression levels were 20 to 30% of wildtype levels. These reduced levels not only impaired resorptive activity, but also increased numbers, size and nucleus numbers of osteoclasts differentiated in vitro. Although ClC-7 was expressed in the stomach and PTH levels were high in Clcn7(-/-) mutants loss of ClC-7 did not entail a relevant elevation of gastric pH. In conclusion, we show that in our model a reduction of ClC-7 function by approximately 70% is sufficient to increase bone mass, but does not necessarily enhance bone formation. ClC-7 does not appear to be crucially involved in gastric acid secretion, which explains the absence of an osteopetrorickets phenotype in CLCN7-related osteopetrosis.
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