Plasma membrane oxidoreductase activity in cultured cells in relation to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT Dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) reduction by intracellualr pyridine nucleotides was investigated in two different lines of cultured cells characterized by enhanced production of reacive oxygen species (ROS) with respect to suitable controls. The first line denominated XTC-UC1 was derived from a metastasis of an oxyphilic thyroid tumor characterized by mitochondrial hyperplasia and compared with a line (B-CPAP) derived from a papillary thyroid carcinoma with normal mitochondrial mass. The second line (170 MN) was a cybrid line derived from rho0 cells from an osteosarcoma line (143B) fused with platelets from a patient with a nucleotide 9957 mutation in mitochondrial DNA (encoding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III) in comparison with the parent 143B line. The experimental lines had no major decreases of electron transfer activities with respect to the controls; both of them, however, exhibited an increased peroxide production. The XTC-UC1 cell line exhibited enhanced activity with respect to control of dicoumarol-sensitive DCIP reduction, identified with membrane bound DT-diaphorase, whereas dicoumarol insensitive DCIP reduction was not significantly changed. On the other hand the mtDNA mutated cybrids exhibited a strong increase of both dicoumarol sensitive and insensitive DCIP reduction. The results suggest that enhanced oxidative stress and not deficient respiratory activity per se is the stimulus triggering over-expression of plasma membrane oxidative enzymes.
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ABSTRACT: Coenzyme Q (Q) is reduced in plasma membrane and mitochondria by NAD(P)H-dependent reductases providing reducing equivalents to maintain both respiratory chain and antioxidant protection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are accumulated in the aging process originating mainly in mitochondria but also in other membranes, such as plasma membrane partially by the loss of electrons from the semiquinone. The reduction of Q by NAD(P)H-dependent reductases in plasma membrane is responsible for providing its antioxidant capacity, preventing both the lipid peroxidation chain and the activation of the ceramide-dependent apoptosis pathway. Both Q content and its reductases are decreased in plasma membrane of aging mammals. Calorie restriction, which extends mammal life span, increases the content of Q in the plasma membrane and also activates Q reductases in this membrane. Both lipid peroxidation and ceramide production are decreased in the plasma membrane in calorie-restricted animals. Plasma membrane is, then, an important cellular component to control the aging process through its concentration and redox state of Q.Age 06/2005; 27(2):139-146. DOI:10.1007/s11357-005-1632-z