Article

PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 7 and 9 are partially redundant genes essential for the temperature responsiveness of the Arabidopsis circadian clock.

Dartmouth College, Department of Biological Sciences, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755-3576, USA.
The Plant Cell (Impact Factor: 9.25). 04/2005; 17(3):791-803. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.104.029504
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Environmental time cues, such as photocycles (light/dark) and thermocycles (warm/cold), synchronize (entrain) endogenous biological clocks to local time. Although much is known about entrainment of the Arabidopsis thaliana clock to photocycles, the determinants of thermoperception and entrainment to thermocycles are not known. The Arabidopsis PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) genes, including the clock component TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1/PRR1, are related to bacterial, fungal, and plant response regulators but lack the conserved Asp that is normally phosphorylated by an upstream sensory kinase. Here, we show that two PRR family members, PRR7 and PRR9, are partially redundant; single prr7-3 or prr9-1 mutants exhibit modest period lengthening, but the prr7-3 prr9-1 double mutant shows dramatic and more than additive period lengthening in the light and becomes arrhythmic in constant darkness. The prr7-3 prr9-1 mutant fails both to maintain an oscillation after entrainment to thermocycles and to reset its clock in response to cold pulses and thus represents an important mutant strongly affected in temperature entrainment in higher plants. We conclude that PRR7 and PRR9 are critical components of a temperature-sensitive circadian system. PRR7 and PRR9 could function in temperature and light input pathways or they could represent elements of an oscillator necessary for the clock to respond to temperature signals.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
73 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hybrid plants and animals often show increased levels of growth and fitness, a phenomenon known as hybrid vigor or heterosis. Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and metabolism in plants and animals. In plant hybrids and polyploids, expression changes of the genes within the circadian regulatory network, such as CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), lead to heterosis. However, the relationship between allelic CCA1 expression and heterosis has remained elusive. Here, we show a parent-of-origin effect on altered circadian rhythms and heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 hybrids. This parent-of-origin effect on biomass heterosis correlates with altered CCA1 expression amplitudes, which are associated with methylation levels of CHH (where H = A, T, or C) sites in the promoter region. The direction of rhythmic expression and hybrid vigor is reversed in reciprocal F1 crosses involving mutants that are defective in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway (argonaute4 and nuclear RNA polymerase D1a) but not in the maintenance methylation pathway (methyltransferase1 and decrease in DNA methylation1). This parent-of-origin effect on circadian regulation and heterosis is established during early embryogenesis and maintained throughout growth and development.
    The Plant cell. 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Light and temperature are arguably two of the most important signals regulating the growth and development of plants. In addition to their direct energetic effects on plant growth, light and temperature provide vital immediate and predictive cues for plants to ensure optimal development both spatially and temporally. While the majority of research to date has focused on the contribution of either light or temperature signals in isolation, it is becoming apparent that an understanding of how the two interact is essential to appreciate fully the complex and elegant ways in which plants utilize these environmental cues. This review will outline the diverse mechanisms by which light and temperature signals are integrated and will consider why such interconnected systems (as opposed to entirely separate light and temperature pathways) may be evolutionarily favourable.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 02/2014; · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural selection of variants within the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock can be attributed to adaptation to varying environments. To define a basis for such variation, we examined clock speed in a reporter-modified Bay-0 x Shakdara recombinant inbred line and localized heritable variation. Extensive variation led us to identify EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) as a major quantitative trait locus (QTL). The causal nucleotide polymorphism caused a short-period phenotype under light and severely dampened rhythm generation in darkness, and entrainment alterations resulted. We found that ELF3-Sha protein failed to properly localize to the nucleus, and its ability to accumulate in darkness was compromised. Evidence was provided that the ELF3-Sha allele originated in Central Asia. Collectively we showed that ELF3 protein plays a vital role in defining its light-repressor action in the circadian clock and that its functional abilities are largely dependent on its cellular localization.
    eLife. 05/2014;

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from