BMP4-dependent expression of Xenopus Grainyhead-like 1 is essential for epidermal differentiation.
ABSTRACT Morphogen-dependent epidermal-specific transacting factors have not been defined in vertebrates. We demonstrate that a member of the grainyhead transcription factor family, Grainyhead-like 1 (XGrhl1) is essential for ectodermal ontogeny in Xenopus laevis. Expression of this factor is restricted to epidermal cells. Moreover, XGrhl1 is regulated by the BMP4 signaling cascade. Disruption of XGrhl1 activity in vivo results in a severe defect in terminal epidermal differentiation, with inhibition of XK81A1 epidermal keratin gene expression, a key target of BMP4 signaling. Furthermore, transcription of the XK81A1 gene is modulated directly by binding of XGRHL1 to a promoter-localized binding motif that is essential for high-level expression. These results establish a novel developmental role for XGrhl1 as a crucial tissue-specific regulator of vertebrate epidermal differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: The DNA-binding transcription factor Smad-interacting protein-1 (Sip1) (also named Zfhx1b/ZEB2) plays essential roles in vertebrate embryogenesis. In Xenopus, XSip1 is essential at the gastrula stage for neural tissue formation, but the precise molecular mechanisms that underlie this process have not been fully identified yet. Here we show that XSip1 functions as a transcriptional repressor during neural induction. We observed that constitutive activation of BMP signaling prevents neural induction by XSip1 but not the inhibition of several epidermal genes. We provide evidence that XSip1 binds directly to the BMP4 proximal promoter and modulates its activity. Finally, by deletion and mutational analysis, we show that XSip1 possesses multiple repression domains and that CtBPs contribute to its repression activity. Consistent with this, interference with XCtBP function reduced XSip1 neuralizing activity. These results suggest that Sip1 acts in neural tissue formation through direct repression of BMP4 but that BMP-independent mechanisms are involved as well. Our data also provide the first demonstration of the importance of CtBP binding in Sip1 transcriptional activity in vivo.Developmental Biology 07/2007; 306(1):34-49. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2007.02.045 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During primary neurulation, the separation of a single-layered ectodermal sheet into the surface ectoderm (SE) and neural tube specifies SE and neural ectoderm (NE) cell fates. The mechanisms underlying fate specification in conjunction with neural tube closure are poorly understood. Here, by comparing expression profiles between SE and NE lineages, we observed that uncommitted progenitor cells, expressing stem cell markers, are present in the neural plate border/neural fold prior to neural tube closure. Our results also demonstrated that canonical Wnt and its antagonists, DKK1/KREMEN1, progressively specify these progenitors into SE or NE fates in accord with the progress of neural tube closure. Additionally, SE specification of the neural plate border via canonical Wnt signaling is directed by the grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) transcription factor. Thus, we propose that the fate specification of uncommitted progenitors in the neural plate border by canonical Wnt signaling and its downstream effector Grhl3 is crucial for neural tube closure. This study implicates that failure in critical genetic factors controlling fate specification of progenitor cells in the neural plate border/neural fold coordinated with neural tube closure may be potential causes of human neural tube defects.04/2015; 6. DOI:10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.04.012
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ABSTRACT: Healthy placental development is essential for reproductive success; failure of the feto-maternal interface results in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. We found that grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2), a CP2-type transcription factor, is highly expressed in chorionic trophoblast cells, including basal chorionic trophoblast (BCT) cells located at the chorioallantoic interface in murine placentas. Placentas from Grhl2-deficient mouse embryos displayed defects in BCT cell polarity and basement membrane integrity at the chorioallantoic interface, as well as a severe disruption of labyrinth branching morphogenesis. Selective Grhl2 inactivation only in epiblast-derived cells rescued all placental defects but phenocopied intraembryonic defects observed in global Grhl2 deficiency, implying the importance of Grhl2 activity in trophectoderm-derived cells. ChIP-seq identified 5282 GRHL2 binding sites in placental tissue. By integrating these data with placental gene expression profiles, we identified direct and indirect Grhl2 targets and found a marked enrichment of GRHL2 binding adjacent to genes downregulated in Grhl2(-/-) placentas, which encoded known regulators of placental development and epithelial morphogenesis. These genes included that encoding the serine protease inhibitor Kunitz type 1 (Spint1), which regulates BCT cell integrity and labyrinth formation. In human placenta, we found that human orthologs of murine GRHL2 and its targets displayed co-regulation and were expressed in trophoblast cells in a similar domain as in mouse placenta. Our data indicate that a conserved Grhl2-coordinated gene network controls trophoblast branching morphogenesis, thereby facilitating development of the site of feto-maternal exchange. This might have implications for syndromes related to placental dysfunction. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.Development 03/2015; 142(6):1125-36. DOI:10.1242/dev.113829 · 6.27 Impact Factor