PPARGC1A genotype (Gly482Ser) predicts exceptional endurance capacity in European men
ABSTRACT Animal and human data indicate a role for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PPARGC1A) gene product in the development of maximal oxygen uptake (V(O2 max)), a determinant of endurance capacity, diabetes, and early death. We tested the hypothesis that the frequency of the minor Ser482 allele at the PPARGC1A locus is lower in World-class Spanish male endurance athletes (cases) [n = 104; mean (SD) age: 26.8 (3.8) yr] than in unfit United Kingdom (UK) Caucasian male controls [n = 100; mean (SD) age: 49.3 (8.1) yr]. In cases and controls, the Gly482Ser genotype met Hardy-Weinberg expectations (P > 0.05 in both groups tested separately). Cases had significantly higher V(O2 max) [73.4 (5.7) vs. 29.4 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (3.8); P < 0.0001] and were leaner [body mass index: 20.6 (1.5) vs. 27.6 kg/m2 (3.9); P < 0.0001] than controls. In unadjusted chi2 analyses, the frequency of the minor Ser482 allele was significantly lower in cases than in controls (29.1 vs. 40.0%; P = 0.01). To assess the possibility that genetic stratification could confound these observations, we also compared Gly482Ser genotype frequencies in Spanish (n = 164) and UK Caucasian men (n = 381) who were unselected for their level of fitness. In these analyses, Ser482 allele frequencies were very similar (36.9% in Spanish vs. 37.5% in UK Caucasians, P = 0.83), suggesting that confounding by genetic stratification is unlikely to explain the association between Gly482Ser genotype and endurance capacity. In summary, our data indicate a role for the Gly482Ser genotype in determining aerobic fitness. This finding has relevance from the perspective of physical performance, but it may also be informative for the targeted prevention of diseases associated with low fitness such as Type 2 diabetes.
SourceAvailable from: Vladimir P Pushkarev[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Genetic variants may predispose humans to elevated risk of common metabolic morbidities such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Some of these variants have also been shown to influence elite athletic performance and the response to exercise training. We compared the genotype distribution of five genetic Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with obesity and obesity co-morbidities (IGF2BP2 rs4402960, LPL rs320, LPL rs328, KCJN rs5219, and MTHFR rs1801133) between athletes (all male, n¿=¿461; endurance athletes n¿=¿254, sprint/power athletes n¿=¿207), and controls (all male, n¿=¿544) in Polish and Russian samples. We also examined the association between these SNPs and the athletes¿ competition level (`elite¿ and `national¿ level). Genotypes were analysed by Single-Base Extension and Real-Time PCR. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between genotypes and athletic status/competition level.Results IGF2BP2 rs4402960 and LPL rs320 were significantly associated with athletic status; sprint/power athletes were twice more likely to have the IGF2BP2 rs4402960 risk (T) allele compared to endurance athletes (OR¿=¿2.11, 95% CI =1.03-4.30, P <0.041), and non-athletic controls were significantly less likely to have the T allele compared to sprint/power athletes (OR =0.62, 95% CI =0.43-0.89, P <0.0009). The control group was significantly more likely to have the LPL rs320 risk (G) allele compared to endurance athletes (OR¿=¿1.26, 95% CI =1.05-1.52, P <0.013). Hence, endurance athletes were the ¿protected¿ group being significantly (p¿<¿0.05) less likely to have the risk allele compared to sprint/power athletes (IGF2BP2 rs4402960) and significantly (p¿<¿0.05) less likely to have the risk allele compared to controls (LPL rs320). The other 3 SNPs did not show significant differences between the study groups.Conclusions Male endurance athletes are less likely to have the metabolic risk alleles of IGF2BP2 rs4402960 and LPL rs320, compared to sprint/power athletes and controls, respectively. These results suggest that some SNPs across the human genome have a dual effect and may predispose endurance athletes to reduced risk of developing metabolic morbidities, whereas sprint/power athletes might be predisposed to elevated risk.BMC Genomics 01/2015; 16(1):25. DOI:10.1186/s12864-014-1199-0 · 4.04 Impact Factor
Article: Current Progress in Sports Genomics[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Understanding the genetic architecture of athletic performance is an important step in the development of methods for talent identification in sport. Research concerned with molecular predictors has highlighted a number of potentially important DNA polymorphisms contributing to predisposition to success in certain types of sport. This review summarizes the evidence and mechanistic insights on the associations between DNA polymorphisms and athletic performance. A literature search (period: 1997-2014) revealed that at least 120 genetic markers are linked to elite athlete status (77 endurance-related genetic markers and 43 power/strength-related genetic markers). Notably, 11 (9%) of these genetic markers (endurance markers: ACE I, ACTN3 577X, PPARA rs4253778 G, PPARGC1A Gly482; power/strength markers: ACE D, ACTN3 Arg577, AMPD1 Gln12, HIF1A 582Ser, MTHFR rs1801131 C, NOS3 rs2070744 T, PPARG 12Ala) have shown positive associations with athlete status in three or more studies and six markers (CREM rs1531550 A, DMD rs939787 T, GALNT13 rs10196189 G, NFIA-AS1 rs1572312 C, RBFOX1 rs7191721 G, TSHR rs7144481 C) were identified after performing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of African-American, Jamaican, Japanese and Russian athletes. On the other hand, the significance of 29 (24%) markers was not replicated in at least one study. Future research including multicenter GWAS, whole-genome sequencing, epigenetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic profiling and performing meta-analyses in large cohorts of athletes is needed before these findings can be extended to practice in sport.Advances in clinical chemistry 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/bs.acc.2015.03.003 · 4.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective A lower frequency for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A) Ser482 allele has been reported in elite-level endurance athletes among Caucasians, although this gene polymorphism has not been found to be associated with aerobic capacity in German, Dutch or Chinese populations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations between the Gly482Ser polymorphism and aerobic fitness in 112 Japanese middle-aged men. Methods The PPARGC1AGly482Ser polymorphism was identified according to a TaqMan(®) SNP genotyping assay. Habitual physical activity was objectively measured using an accelerometer. The lactate threshold (LT), an index of aerobic fitness, was measured based on a submaximal graded exercise test performed on an electric cycle ergometer. The association between the LT and the Gly482Ser polymorphism was assessed according to a multiple regression analysis and analysis of covariance, with adjustment for potential confounders (age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, physical activity level and regular exercise). Results A significant association was observed between the PPARGC1AGly482Ser polymorphism and LT, as carriers of the Ser482 had higher LT values than the Gly482 carriers. Conclusion The current results suggest that the PPARGC1ASer482 allele is associated with a higher aerobic capacity in Japanese middle-aged men.