Acute cellular rejection predominated by monocytes is a severe form of rejection in human renal recipients with or without Campath-1H (alemtuzumab) induction therapy.
ABSTRACT Campath-1H has been used successfully for induction and has resulted in a low rate of acute cellular rejection (ACR) in renal transplantation in combination with various postoperative immunosuppression regimens. This study was undertaken to investigate the extent of monocyte involvement in ACR, with or without Campath-1H induction. We found that monocytes represented the majority of inflammatory cells in grades Ib or higher ACR, but not with Ia type of ACR, regardless of the status of Campath-1H induction. Cases of ACR, following Campath-1H induction, appear to demonstrate a 'pure form' of monocytic ACR, whereas monocytes were mixed with many other types of inflammatory cells in the cases of ACR in the absence of Campath-1H induction. In addition with Campath-1H induction, the cases of monocyte-predominant ACR were found to uniformly exhibit a good response to corticosteroid treatment. We conclude that monocyte-predominate ACR may represent a severe form of rejection, with or without Campath-1H treatment.
- The Lancet 07/1998; 351(9117):1701-2. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Campath-1H (alemtuzumab), a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD52, can cause more profound depletion of lymphocytes than monocytes. The resultant imbalance of lymphocytes and monocytes after Campath-1H treatment of a renal-transplant recipient may lead to an acute rejection dominated by monocytes. We report such a case of acute transplant rejection in a 49-yr-old man who received a living non-related kidney transplant and was treated with preoperative Campath-1H and postoperative immunosuppression. An initial post-transplant renal biopsy showed diffuse mild acute rejection with 95% CD68-positive monocytes, but only 5% CD3-positive T lymphocytes. Inflammatory cells in the renal biopsy were negative for CD34 and CD1a stains, suggesting non-involvement of CD34-derived dendritic cells in the acute rejection. After steroid treatment for 2 wk, the patient's serum creatinine concentration diminished to 1.5 mg/dl. The histopathological features of acute rejection were absent in a second biopsy of the transplanted kidney. In summary, this case is an instance of monocyte-mediated acute rejection of a transplanted kidney.Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2004; 34(2):209-13. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were made of biopsy specimens from 50 consecutive patients who experienced putative graft rejection. The mean age of the patients was 44.5 years (range, 17-69 years) and 26 were men. There were 67 evaluable allograft specimens, which were grouped according to the histological diagnosis: group 1, acute tubulointerstitial rejection (n = 42); group 2, acute vascular rejection (n = 18); and group 3, diffuse thrombosis (n = 7). Over a follow-up period of 21-57 months, the mean number of rejection episodes was 1.7, 2.8, and 3.3 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Allograft loss occurred in 7 out of 30, 10 out of 16, and 4 out of 4 patients in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The following histological parameters differed significantly (P < 0.05) among the groups: interstitial edema, congestion of peritubular capillaries, glomerular thrombosis, and glomerular ischemia (group 3 > group 2 > group 1). Interstitial bleeding was seen more often in group 2 and 3 tissues than in group 1 specimens (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analyses showed that vascular rejection was associated with WT14 staining for monocytes and macrophages around the tubuli and with interstitial deposition of complement factor 3. With regard to serology, positive anti-endothelial cell antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was associated with vascular rejection and thrombosis of the graft in all patients tested, and with graft loss in 75%. Pre-existent positive anti-IgG immunofluorescence on peritubular capillaries in pretransplant biopsy specimens incubated with patient serum was found in only 3 of the 50 patients, but was associated with graft loss in 2 of the 3. Cytomegalovirus infection was associated with a higher percentage of graft loss. There were significant intergroup differences in panel reactive antibodies before transplantation (P < 0.001), with higher titers in groups 2 and 3. The findings in relation to interstitial rejection are compatible with cellular rejection, while the data on vascular rejection support a humorally mediated pathogenesis.Transplantation 05/1996; 61(9):1338-44. · 3.78 Impact Factor