A computer adaptive testing approach for assessing physical functioning in children and adolescents
ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to demonstrate: (1) the accuracy and (2) the reduction in amount of time and effort in assessing physical functioning (self-care and mobility domains) of children and adolescents using computer-adaptive testing (CAT). A CAT algorithm selects questions directly tailored to the child's ability level, based on previous responses. Using a CAT algorithm, a simulation study was used to determine the number of items necessary to approximate the score of a full-length assessment. We built simulated CAT (5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-item versions) for self-care and mobility domains and tested their accuracy in a normative sample (n=373; 190 males, 183 females; mean age 6y 11mo [SD 4y 2m], range 4mo to 14y 11mo) and a sample of children and adolescents with Pompe disease (n=26; 21 males, 5 females; mean age 6y 1mo [SD 3y 10mo], range 5mo to 14y 10mo). Results indicated that comparable score estimates (based on computer simulations) to the full-length tests can be achieved in a 20-item CAT version for all age ranges and for normative and clinical samples. No more than 13 to 16% of the items in the full-length tests were needed for any one administration. These results support further consideration of using CAT programs for accurate and efficient clinical assessments of physical functioning.
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ABSTRACT: Background/Objective. Outcomes-based data, whether used clinically or for research, are difficult to collect in the pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI) population due to a lack of appropriate assessment measures. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to describe the process by which two item pools were developed to evaluate activity performance and participation among children with SCI and to introduce the resultant items specific to pediatric SCI. Methods. The process of item development, including construct development, review of related assessment tools, chart review, item writing and refinement using focus groups, cognitive interviews, and further refinement, was used to create the items pools for activity and participation for children and adolescents with SCI. Results. A total of 347 items were written for the activity performance construct and 61 items were written for the participation construct. Several domains were established within each construct and items were written for both child and parent respondents. Conclusion. The process of detailed item development is the first step in the process of developing an outcomes instrument for children and adolescents with SCI to assess activity performance and participation. The items are representative of pediatric SCI because they address areas specific to children and adolescents with SCI such as wheeled mobility, upper extremity function with adaptive equipment, role performance, and socialization. After testing these items in calibration studies, we will determine if these items can be developed into effective computer-adaptive testing applications.International Journal of Pediatrics 10/2009; 2009:854904. DOI:10.1155/2009/854904
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ABSTRACT: We developed normative profiles of physical functioning (mobility and self-care) in infancy up through 14 years of age with an expanded version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Mobility and self-care reference curves were based on the original Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory standardization data (n = 412) and data from an additional cross-sectional, convenience sample (n = 373) via web-based survey, telephone or in-person interviews of parents. This new sample, which included children up through 14 years-of-age, was stratified for race, age, and sex, but was primarily limited geographically to the Northeast region of the United States. Goodness of fit of male, female, and combined sex (male and female) reference curves was examined. The mobility and self-care reference curves produced efficient and well-fitting estimates of conventional percentiles (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 97th). Differences between males' and females' reference curves were negligible. This study highlights the use of these reference curves for determining the functional impact of Pompe disease, a lysosomal storage disorder that affects skeletal and cardiac muscle, restricting normal expression of mobility and self-care activities. This physical functioning instrument could also be used to evaluate the impact of muscle weakness in other neuromuscular disorders.Pediatric Neurology 12/2004; 31(5):333-41. DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2004.05.002 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purposes of this article are to describe the pathology, medical implications, and typical impairments of individuals with various lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), summarize results of recent clinical trials on medical interventions relevant to physical therapy practice, report new advances in functional measurement, and suggest a framework for physical therapy management and intervention. Medical and surgical interventions are enabling individuals with LSDs to not only survive but to improve their daily functioning and quality of life. This is likely to become an increasing area of emphasis in pediatric physical therapy, as the intervention emphasis for some individuals will shift from maintenance to restorative programs. We recommend that pediatric physical therapists become familiar with new LSD therapeutics, play a major role in evaluating impairment and functional limitation changes in individuals with LSDs, and become knowledgeable about the indications and precautions for restorative physical therapy programs.Pediatric Physical Therapy 02/2005; 17(2):128-39. DOI:10.1097/01.PEP.0000163077.26274.9C · 1.29 Impact Factor