Resource utilisation and cost analysis of memantine in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating illness that causes enormous emotional stress to affected families and is associated with substantial medical and nonmedical costs.
To determine the effects of 28 weeks of memantine treatment for patients with AD on resource utilisation and costs.
Multicentre, prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed in the US. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to examine the resource utilisation variables and logistic regression models were used for multivariate resource utilisation analyses. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models (log and non-log) were computed to examine costs from a societal perspective. All costs were calculated in 1999 US dollars. Study population: Outpatients with moderate to severe AD. Overall, 252 patients received randomised treatment, and 166 patients (placebo n = 76, memantine n = 90) formed the treated-per-protocol (TPP) subset for the health economic analyses, on which the main cost analysis was based.
Resource Utilisation in Dementia (RUD) scale, measuring patient and caregiver resource utilisation, and various sources for cost calculations.
Controlling for baseline differences between the groups, significantly less caregiver time was needed for patients receiving memantine than for those receiving placebo (difference 51.5 hours per month; 95% CI -95.27, -7.17; p = 0.02). Analysis of residential status also favoured memantine: time to institutionalisation (p = 0.052) and institutionalisation at week 28 (p = 0.04 with the chi-square test). Total costs from a societal perspective were lower in the memantine group (difference dollars US 1089.74/month [non-overlapping 95% CI for treatment difference -1954.90, -224.58]; p = 0.01). The main differences between the groups were total caregiver costs (dollars US-823.77/month; p = 0.03) and direct nonmedical costs (dollars US-430.84/month; p = 0.07) favouring memantine treatment. Patient direct medical costs were higher in the memantine group (p < 0.01), mainly due to the cost of memantine.
Resource utilisation and total health costs were lower in the memantine group than the placebo group. The results suggest that memantine treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD is cost saving from a societal perspective.
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Pharmaceutical therapy for patients with dementia including cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) and memantine is covered by Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) but with strict reimbursement criteria. This study compared utilization of selected cognitive enhancers among elderly patients with dementia and estimated associated differences in medical care costs. Methods: This study used medical claims and pharmacy claims from the NHI Research Database of Taiwan from 2009 to 2011, which included all patients 65 years or older diagnosed with dementia in their outpatient or inpatient claims. Both individual-level and market-level analysis were performed to calculate the average medical costs per person and the share of drug expenditures. Generalized linear models with propensity score adjustment estimated differences in medical care costs by use of selected cognitive enhancers. Results: Users of ChEI had the highest medication and outpatient costs but the lowest inpatient costs among all users of cognitive enhancers. However, annual adjusted total medical care costs per ChEI user were not significantly different from those who used cerebral vasodilators (CBV). In 2011, 52.4% of the elderly with dementia in Taiwan used cognitive enhancers, but among them 88.3% used CBV while 9.2% used ChEI. Among patients with dementia who used at least one cognitive enhancer, the aggregated expenditure as a share of their total drug expenditures was 9.7% in 2011. Conclusion: Given that CBV had a much higher utilization rate than ChEI or memantine among elderly people with dementia, the strict reimbursement policy for ChEI and memantine may need to be revisited to increase access to those drugs by patients with dementia in Taiwan.International Psychogeriatrics 01/2014; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The socio-economic impact of Alzheimer′s disease (AD) and other dementias is enormous, and the potential economic challenges ahead are clear given the projected future numbers of individuals with these conditions. Because of the high prevalence and cost of dementia, it is very important to assess any intervention from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. The diagnostic criteria for preclinical AD suggested by the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association workgroups in combination with the goal of effective disease-modifying treatment (DMT) are, however, a challenge for clinical practice and for the design of clinical trials. Key issues for future cost-effectiveness studies include the following: (i) the consequences for patients if diagnosis is shifted from AD-dementia to predementia states, (ii) bridging the gap between clinical trial populations and patients treated in clinical practice, (iii) translation of clinical trial end-points into measures that are meaningful to patients and policymakers/payers and (iv) how to measure long-term effects. To improve cost-effectiveness studies, long-term population-based data on disease progression, costs and outcomes in clinical practice are needed not only in dementia but also in predementia states. Reliable surrogate end-points in clinical trials that are sensitive to detect effects even in predementia states are also essential as well as robust and validated modelling methods from predementia states that also take into account comorbidities and age. Finally, the ethical consequences of early diagnosis should be considered.Journal of Internal Medicine 03/2014; 275(3). · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Progress has been made in understanding the genetics and molecular biology of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Targets for intervention have been identified, therapies are being developed, and clinical trials are advancing. A major challenge for FTD research is that multiple underlying pathologies can be associated with heterogeneous phenotypes. The neuropsychological profiles associated with FTD spectrum disorders often include executive dysfunction, language impairments and behavioral disturbance. Behavioral variant FTD is characterized by an initial presentation of changes in personality, behavior and/or emotion, which are often difficult to objectively capture using traditional neuropsychological measures. The two principal language variants of FTD are Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia (PNFA) with predominant agrammatic/non-fluent impairments and Semantic Dementia (SD) with semantic impairments and visual agnosia. Selection of appropriate endpoints for clinical trials is critical to ensure that the measures are adequately sensitive to detect change, yet specific enough to isolate signal from noise, and acceptable to regulatory agencies. Given the anticipated potential for small effect sizes, measures must be able to identify small incremental changes over time. It is also imperative that the measures provide adequate coverage of the constructs or behaviors of interest. Selected outcome measures should be suitable for repeat administration, yet relatively robust to practice effects to ensure that observed changes reflect true signal variance and not residual effects due to repeated measurement or poor reliability. To facilitate widespread adoption as an endpoint, measures should be readily accessible. We provide several examples of potential global, composite, and individual cognitive measures, as well as behavioral measures promising for FTD trials. Development and application of appropriate trial outcomes is critically important to success in advancing new treatments for FTD patients.Translational neurodegeneration. 01/2014; 3:12.