Sensitivity and specificity of a new bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale.
ABSTRACT To assess the sensitivity and specificity of a self-report questionnaire for bipolar disorder, the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS).
The BSDS was administered to 68 consecutive patients with bipolar illness and 27 consecutive patients with unipolar major depressive disorder. Created by Ronald Pies, it consists of a descriptive story that captures subtle features of bipolar illness, to which patients may assent on a sentence-by-sentence basis. BSDS scores were compared to clinicians' DSM-IV-based diagnoses.
Sensitivity of the BSDS was 0.76, approximately equal in bipolar I and II/NOS subjects (0.75 and 0.79, respectively). The BSDS identified 85% of unipolar-depressed patients as not having bipolar spectrum illness. A shift in the threshold of the BSDS resulted in a large increase in specificity (from 0.85 to 0.93), without a significant loss of sensitivity.
The BSDS was highly sensitive and specific for bipolar spectrum illness, especially with the amended threshold for positive diagnosis.
SourceAvailable from: Laura Pendergast[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the United States, Black and White individuals show discrepant rates of diagnosis of bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder, as well as disparate access to and utilization of treatment for these disorders (e.g., Alegria, Chatterji, et al., 2008; Chrishon, Anderson, Arora, & Bailey, 2012). Such diagnostic discrepancies might stem from racially related cognitive biases in clinical judgment or from racial biases in measurements of bipolar disorder. The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is among the most well-validated and widely used measures of bipolar mood symptoms, but the psychometric properties of the GBI have been examined primarily in predominantly White samples. In this study, we used multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the invariance of GBI scores across racial groups with a nonclinical sample. Fit was acceptable for tests of configural invariance, equal factor loadings, and equal intercepts, but not invariance of residuals. Findings indicate that GBI scores provide functionally invariant measurement of mood symptoms in both Black and White samples. The use of GBI scores may contribute consistent information to clinical assessments and could potentially reduce diagnostic discrepancies and associated differences in access to and utilization of mental health services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).Psychological Assessment 09/2014; DOI:10.1037/pas0000020 · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bipolar spectrum disorders are frequently under-recognized and/or misdiagnosed in various settings. Several influential publications recommend the routine screening of bipolar disorder. A systematic review and meta-analysis of accuracy studies for the bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale (BSDS), the hypomania checklist (HCL-32) and the mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ) were performed.Methods The Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane, PsycINFO and SCOPUS databases were searched. Studies were included if the accuracy properties of the screening measures were determined against a DSM or ICD-10 structured diagnostic interview. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to rate bias.ResultsFifty three original studies met inclusion criteria (N=21,542). At recommended cutoffs, summary sensitivities were 81%, 66% and 69%, while specificities were 67%, 79% and 86% for the HCL-32, MDQ, and BSDS in psychiatric services, respectively. The HCL-32 was more accurate than the MDQ for the detection of type II bipolar disorder in mental health care centers (P=0.018). At a cutoff of 7, the MDQ had a summary sensitivity of 43% and a summary specificity of 95% for detection of bipolar disorder in primary care or general population settings.LimitationsMost studies were performed in mental health care settings. Several included studies had a high risk of bias.Conclusions Although accuracy properties of the three screening instruments did not consistently differ in mental health care services, the HCL-32 was more accurate than the MDQ for the detection of type II BD. More studies in other settings (for example, in primary care) are necessary.Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2014; 172. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.024 · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Screening measures for bipolar disorder are positioned as playing an important role in improving diagnostic accuracy. This review considers the principal screening measures developed over the past decade. Although the development and evaluation of bipolar screening measures were distinct between 2000 and 2010, there has been a decrease in research and evaluation in recent years. This article considers the main impetus for the development of screening measures for bipolar disorder and provides a description and critique of the principal measures used in both clinical and community settings. Screening measures have an important role in identifying bipolar disorder but are best positioned as a first-stage strategy rather than as definitive diagnostic measures. Although several have been developed and well validated in clinical settings, there is a distinct need for extension studies exploring their classificatory properties in community settings as well as clinical impact studies to determine their 'real world' utility.Current Opinion in Psychiatry 01/2015; 28(1):18-23. DOI:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000125 · 3.55 Impact Factor