A downscaled practical measure of mood lability as a screening tool for bipolar II.
ABSTRACT Current data indicate a strong association between Cyclothymic temperament (and its more ultradian counterpart of mood lability) and Bipolar II (BPII). Administration of elaborate measures of temperament are cumbersome in routine practice. Accordingly, the aim of the present analyses was to test if a practical measure of mood lability was unique to BPII, in comparison with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version as modified by us [J. Affect. Disord. 73 (2003) 33; Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 16 (2003) S71], we interviewed 62 consecutive BPII outpatients, as well as their 59 MDD counterparts during a major depressive episode (MDE). Hypomanic symptoms during MDE were systematically assessed: three or more such symptoms defined depressive mixed state (DMX3) on the basis of previous work by us [J. Affect. Disord. 73 (2003) 113]. A downscaled definition of trait mood lability was adapted from Akiskal et al. [Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 52 (1995) 114] and Angst et al. [J. Affect. Disord. 73 (2003) 133], requiring a positive response to one of two queries on whether one is a person with frequent "ups and downs" in mood, and whether such mood swings occur for no reason. The patients selected for inclusion had not received neuroleptics and antidepressants for at least 2 weeks prior to the index episode, they were free of substance and alcohol abuse, and did not meet the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Associations between mood swings and clinical variables were tested by logistic regression (STATA 7).
Mood swings were endorsed by 50.4% of the entire sample: 62.9% of BPII and 37.2% of MDD (p = 0.0047). This practical measure of mood lability was significantly associated with BPII, lower age at onset, high depressive recurrences, atypical features, and DMX3. When controlled for number of major affective episodes, mood swings were still significantly associated with BP-II. Sensitivity and specificity of mood swings for predicting BPII were 62.9% and 62.7%, respectively.
The low specificity of trait mood lability for BPII diagnosis is probably due to the fact that we used a downscaled simplified measure of this trait.
On the other hand, the relatively high sensitivity of our downscaled measure of mood lability for predicting BPII supports its usefulness as a screening tool for this diagnosis. The lack of association between self-reported mood lability and number of major mood episodes indicates that such lability does not reflect the perception of history of frequent episodes, and that it has some validity as a trait indicator. Given that our sample excluded patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for BPD, contradicts the opinion of the latter manual that such mood lability represents its pathognomonic characteristic that distinguishes it from BPII. The bipolar nature of mood lability is further supported by significant associations with external validating criteria for bipolarity. Overall, these data indicate that in the differential diagnosis between MDD and BPII, trait mood lability favors the latter at a significant statistical level.
- SourceAvailable from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Residual depressive symptoms are common in mood disorders. Inter-episode mood lability (IML; i.e. frequent ups and downs of mood) is understudied as a possible residual symptom. The study aim was to find the frequency of IML, and to find if it was more likely to be a residual symptom or if it was instead part of the natural course of mood disorders. Consecutive 89 bipolar-II (BP-II) and 89 major depressive disorder (MDD) outpatients who were not on psychoactive drugs, were interviewed by the Structured Clinical Interview for the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as modified by Benazzi and Akiskal. Kraepelin's basic definition of IML (i.e. frequent up and down fluctuations of mood between episodes) was followed. IML was present in 48.3% of the patients, significantly more common in BP-II than in MDD (62.9% vs. 33.7%, P= 0.000). The sample of BP-II and MDD plus IML, versus the sample BP-II and MDD without IML, had significantly more BP-II, lower age at onset, longer illness duration, more depressive recurrences, more depressions with atypical features, more depressive mixed states, and more family history of mood disorders. Logistic regression of IML versus recurrences, controlled for duration of illness, found odds ratio = 1.8, z= 1.6, P= 0.103. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression of IML versus the variables found significant in the univariate analysis, showed that only BP-II (P = 0.002) and duration of illness (P = 0.015) were significant predictors of IML. IML was common in mood disorder outpatients. Its association with BP-II (an unstable disorder by definition) and duration of illness (but not with recurrences when controlled for illness duration), suggest that IML may be more likely to be part of the natural course of illness than the result of kindling induced by recurrences. Its association with depressive mixed state (a depression reported to be more difficult to treat) and the possibility that it may induce/facilitate recurrences (to be shown by prospective studies), support the need to better study IML for its possible important impact on treatment.Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 11/2004; 58(5):480-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2004.01289.x · 1.62 Impact Factor
Article: Further Evidence for Mixed Emotions[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 06/2011; 100(6):1095-110. DOI:10.1037/a0021846 · 5.08 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The personality trait neuroticism predicts depression and suicidal thoughts. Neuroticism is also linked to mood instability (MI)1Mood instability/variability.1 that is common in patients with depression. This study investigated (a) whether MI predicts suicidal thoughts in depressed patients and (b) the relationship of MI to neuroticism. All 129 patients with Major Depression (MINI interview) were assessed on MI (Affective Lability Scale), neuroticism (Short Eysenck Neuroticism Scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and suicidal thoughts (Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation). Participants also completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Mood Disorder Questionnaire and five clinical questions on MI. Factor analysis of the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale revealed unstable moods as one of three main factors. Only depression severity and MI predicted suicidal thoughts once other variables including neuroticism were controlled. Mediation analyses showed that MI mediated the relationship between neuroticism and suicidal thoughts. These results suggest that MI as measured by the Affective Lability Scale typifies the type of depression that predicts suicidal thoughts and that MI may be more directly associated with suicidal thoughts than neuroticism. This demonstrates the clinical value of assessing MI rather than neuroticism in the treatment of patients with depression with suicidal thoughts.Personality and Individual Differences 12/2011; 51(8):1034-1038. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2011.08.015 · 1.86 Impact Factor