Diagnostic conversion from depression to bipolar disorders: results of a long-term prospective study of hospital admissions.
ABSTRACT To analyse the time course and some risk factors for a diagnostic change from major depression to bipolar disorders (BP) over an average of 20 years from the onset of the disorders.
Patients (406) with major mood disorders hospitalised at some time between 1959 and 1963 were followed-up until 1985. The analysis also included the course prior to hospitalisation. Survival analyses and Cox regression models were applied.
A diagnostic change from depression to bipolar I occurred in about 1% of the patients per year and to bipolar II disorders in about 0.5% per year. Risk factors for a change from depression to BP-I disorder were male sex and an early onset of the disorder; risk factors for a change from depression to BP-II disorder were female sex, a later onset of the disorder and a positive family history of mania.
Across the entire lifetime, every new episode of depression brings a new risk for mania; more than half of our severe mood disorder cases became bipolars. The risk of depression developing into bipolar disorder remains constant lifelong.
The diagnostic classification of ICD-9 met RDC criteria for bipolar disorder in only 90% of cases. Part of the data collected in retrospect may be less reliable; the prospective data were only collected every 5 years from 1965 to 1985 using multiple sources; mild manifestations between the follow-ups may have been partially missed. The sample of subsequent hospital admissions for major depression and mania represents a severe group of patients and generalisations to ambulatory cases may not be possible. Not all risk factors for diagnostic conversion described in the literature could be assessed in this study.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with unipolar psychotic depression (PD) are at high risk of developing bipolar disorder (BD). This conversion has important implications for the choice of treatment. This study, therefore, aimed to identify risk factors associated with diagnostic conversion from PD to BD. We conducted a population-based, historical prospective cohort study by merging data from Danish registers. Patients assigned an ICD-10 diagnosis of PD between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2007 were identified in the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register and were followed until the development of BD, death, loss to follow-up, or 31 December 2007. Potential risk factors for conversion to BD, also defined through various Danish registers, were tested in multiple logistic regression analyses with risk expressed as adjusted odds ratios (AOR). We identified 8,588 patients with PD, of whom 609 (7.1%) developed BD during follow-up. The following characteristics were significantly associated with diagnostic conversion from PD to BD: early onset of PD [AOR = 0.99 (per year of increasing age), p = 0.044], recurrent depression [AOR = 1.02 (per episode), p = 0.036], living alone (AOR = 1.29, p = 0.007), receiving a disability pension (AOR = 1.55, p < 0.001), and the highest educational level being a technical education (AOR = 1.55, p < 0.001), short-cycle higher education (AOR = 2.65, p < 0.001), or medium-cycle higher education (AOR = 1.75, p < 0.001). Diagnostic conversion to BD was prevalent among patients with PD. The following characteristics were significantly associated with this conversion: early onset of PD, recurrent depression, living alone, receiving a disability pension, and the highest educational level being a technical education, short-cycle higher education, or medium-cycle higher education.Bipolar Disorders 11/2013; · 4.62 Impact Factor
- Archivos de psiquiatría, ISSN 1576-0367, Vol. 70, Nº. 1, 2007, pags. 43-64. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: We investigated whether adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes have an excess risk of mental and physical morbidity in adulthood, as compared with adolescents exclusively reporting major depressive disorder (MDD) and controls without a history of adolescent mood disorders. A community sample of adolescents (N = 2 300) in the town of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depressive symptoms. Both participants with positive screening and matched controls (in total 631) were diagnostically interviewed. Ninety participants reported hypomania spectrum episodes (40 full-syndromal, 18 with brief episode, and 32 subsyndromal), while another 197 fulfilled the criteria for MDD without a history of a hypomania spectrum episode. A follow up after 15 years included a blinded diagnostic interview, a self-assessment of personality disorders, and national register data on prescription drugs and health services use. The participation rate at the follow-up interview was 71 % (64/90) for the hypomania spectrum group, and 65.9 % (130/197) for the MDD group. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing data. The outcomes of the hypomania spectrum group and the MDD group were similar regarding subsequent non-mood Axis I disorders in adulthood (present in 53 vs. 57 %). A personality disorder was reported by 29 % of the hypomania spectrum group and by 20 % of the MDD group, but a statistically significant difference was reached only for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (24 vs. 14 %). In both groups, the risk of Axis I disorders and personality disorders in adulthood correlated with continuation of mood disorder. Prescription drugs and health service use in adulthood was similar in the two groups. Compared with adolescents without mood disorders, both groups had a higher subsequent risk of psychiatric morbidity, used more mental health care, and received more psychotropic drugs. Although adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes and adolescents with MDD do not differ substantially in health outcomes, both groups are at increased risk for subsequent mental health problems. Thus, it is important to identify and treat children and adolescents with mood disorders, and carefully follow the continuing course.BMC Psychiatry 01/2014; 14(1):9. · 2.23 Impact Factor