Diagnostic conversion from depression to bipolar disorders: results of a long-term prospective study of hospital admissions.
ABSTRACT To analyse the time course and some risk factors for a diagnostic change from major depression to bipolar disorders (BP) over an average of 20 years from the onset of the disorders.
Patients (406) with major mood disorders hospitalised at some time between 1959 and 1963 were followed-up until 1985. The analysis also included the course prior to hospitalisation. Survival analyses and Cox regression models were applied.
A diagnostic change from depression to bipolar I occurred in about 1% of the patients per year and to bipolar II disorders in about 0.5% per year. Risk factors for a change from depression to BP-I disorder were male sex and an early onset of the disorder; risk factors for a change from depression to BP-II disorder were female sex, a later onset of the disorder and a positive family history of mania.
Across the entire lifetime, every new episode of depression brings a new risk for mania; more than half of our severe mood disorder cases became bipolars. The risk of depression developing into bipolar disorder remains constant lifelong.
The diagnostic classification of ICD-9 met RDC criteria for bipolar disorder in only 90% of cases. Part of the data collected in retrospect may be less reliable; the prospective data were only collected every 5 years from 1965 to 1985 using multiple sources; mild manifestations between the follow-ups may have been partially missed. The sample of subsequent hospital admissions for major depression and mania represents a severe group of patients and generalisations to ambulatory cases may not be possible. Not all risk factors for diagnostic conversion described in the literature could be assessed in this study.
Article: The emerging modern face of mood disorders: a didactic editorial with a detailed presentation of data and definitions.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present work represents a detailed description of our current understanding and knowledge of the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestations of mood disorders, their comorbidity and overlap, and the effect of variables such as gender and age. This review article is largely based on the 'Mood disorders' chapter of the Wikibooks Textbook of Psychiatry http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Textbook_of_Psychiatry/Mood_Disorders.Annals of General Psychiatry 04/2010; 9:14. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this article we aimed to: (1) review literature concerning the clinical and psychopathologic characteristics of Bipolar (BP) depression; (2) analyze an independent sample of depressed patients to identify any demographic and/or clinical feature that may help in differentiating mood disorder subtypes, with special attention to potential markers of bipolarity. A sample of 291 depressed subjects, including BP -I (n = 104), BP -II (n = 64), and unipolar (UP) subjects with (n = 53) and without (n = 70) BP family history (BPFH), was examined to evidence potential differences in clinical presentation and to validate literature-derived markers of bipolarity. Demographic and clinical variables and, also, single items from the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were compared among groups. UP subjects had an older age at onset of mood symptoms. A higher number of major depressive episodes and a higher incidence of lifetime psychotic features were found in BP subjects. Items expressing depressed mood, depressive anhedonia, pessimistic thoughts, and neurovegetative symptoms of depression scored higher in UP, whereas depersonalization and paranoid symptoms' scores were higher in BP. When compared with UP, BP I had a significantly higher incidence of intradepressive hypomanic symptoms. Bipolar family history was found to be the strongest predictor of bipolarity in depression. Overall, our findings confirm most of the classical signs of bipolarity in depression and support the view that some features, such as BPFH, together with some specific symptoms may help in detecting depressed subjects at higher risk for BP disorder.Comprehensive psychiatry 03/2011; 53(1):24-38. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The consensus guidelines of Argentine experts in the treatment of bipolar disorders are the result of three days of work of the 9 main local experts under the organization of the Argentine Association of Mood Disorders (ASATHU). This work is an update of the guidelines published on this journal in 2006. It was adopted a mixed criterion for its preparation: all the recent data of the evidence medicine based published until now were discussed and were balanced with the knowledge acquired from clinical experience of the local experts on the bipolar field. It presents general recommendations and suggested therapeutic sequences for maintenance, manic/hypomanic or mixed episode and depressive episode treatments. Bipolar disorders have been divided according to the international classifications in type I and II; with or without rapid cycling. This work also includes a series of recommendations for early and differential diagnosis of bipolar disorders.Vertex (Buenos Aires, Argentina) 01/2010; 21 Suppl II Consenso:3-55.