Molecular cloning of prepro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone cDNAs from the common carp Cyprinus carpio and goldfish Carassius auratus.
ABSTRACT To expand our knowledge on the evolution of prepro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone (ppTRH) from fish to tetrapods, sequences of ppTRH cDNAs from two cyprinid teleosts, the common carp Cyprinus carpio and goldfish Carassius auratus, were determined. Degenerate primers were designed based on the conserved regions between the zebrafish ppTRH sequence identified from the zebrafish EST database and the sockeye salmon ppTRH sequence, and PCR amplification was performed. Full-length ppTRHs were confirmed from ppTRH cDNAs obtained by 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The common carp ppTRH cDNA encodes 187 amino acids including 6 copies of the TRH progenitor sequence (Lys/Arg-Arg-Gln-His-Pro-Gly-Lys/Arg-Arg), whereas the goldfish ppTRH cDNA encodes 231 amino acids including 8 copies of the TRH progenitor sequence. The molecular phylogenetic analysis of the ppTRH sequences reflected the predicted pattern of species classification. The common carp, goldfish, and zebrafish ppTRHs have some unique characteristics. The common carp and zebrafish ppTRHs are smaller than that of the goldfish mainly due to the absence of 29 and 17 consecutive amino acids, respectively. The deleted region includes one or two TRH progenitor sequences flanked by some glutamate residues, similar to the glutamate-rich regions of human ppTRH. Hydropathy profiles showed that the presence of a TRH progenitor sequence in the C-terminal hydrophilic region is a characteristic of teleosts and human ppTRHs. These observations may provide clues to a better understanding of the molecular evolution of ppTRH.
Article: Molecular evolution of prepro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the chicken (Gallus gallus) and its expression in the brain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A cDNA encoding prepro-thyrotropin-relaesing hormone (ppTRH) in chicken (Gallus gallus) was isolated and the sites of expression in the brain were determined. The chicken ppTRH cDNA encodes 260 amino acids, including four TRH progenitor sequences (-Lys/Arg-Arg-Gln-His-Pro-Gly-Lys/Arg-Arg-). It is interesting to note that chicken ppTRH harbors four TRH progenitor-like sequences. According to the hydropathy profile of chicken ppTRH, not only the TRH progenitor sequences but also the TRH progenitor-like sequences are localized in hydrophilic regions. The TRH progenitor-like sequences might be related to structural conservation in the evolution of ppTRH, although they cannot be processed into TRH due to the mutation of several amino acids. According to the alignment of the deduced amino-acid sequences of known vertebrate ppTRHs and the molecular phylogenetic tree we constructed, we speculate on the molecular evolution of ppTRH in vertebrates. In situ hybridization demonstrated experession of the ppTRH gene in the nucleus preopticus periventricularis, nucleus preopticus medialis, regio lateralis hypothalami, paraventricular nucleus, nucleus periventricularis hypothalami, and nucleus ventromedialis hypothalami in the chicken brain.ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 08/2007; 24(7):686-92. · 0.95 Impact Factor