Differential effects of shear stress and cyclic stretch on focal adhesion remodeling, site-specific FAK phosphorylation, and small GTPases in human lung endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT Regulation of endothelial cell (EC) permeability by bioactive molecules is associated with specific patterns of cytoskeletal and cell contact remodeling. A role for mechanical factors such as shear stress (SS) and cyclic stretch (CS) in cytoskeletal rearrangements and regulation of EC permeability becomes increasingly recognized. This paper examined redistribution of focal adhesion (FA) proteins, site-specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, small GTPase activation and barrier regulation in human pulmonary EC exposed to laminar shear stress (15 dyn/cm2) or cyclic stretch (18% elongation) in vitro. SS caused peripheral accumulation of FAs, whereas CS induced randomly distributed FAs attached to the ends of newly formed stress fibers. SS activated small GTPase Rac without effects on Rho, whereas 18% CS activated without effect on Rac. SS increased transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) in EC monolayers, which was further elevated by barrier-protective phospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate. Finally, SS induced FAK phosphorylation at Y576, whereas CS induced FAK phosphorylation at Y397 and Y576. These results demonstrate for the first time differential effects of SS and CS on Rho and Rac activation, FA redistribution, site-specific FAK phosphorylation, and link them with SS-mediated barrier enhancement. Thus, our results suggest common signaling and cytoskeletal mechanisms shared by mechanical and chemical factors involved in EC barrier regulation.
- SourceAvailable from: Nooshin Haghighipour[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It has been well established that biomechanical environment can influence functionality of biological cells. There are evidences that show mechanical cyclic stretch can promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers in endothelial cells (ECs). The objective of this study was to determine whether mechanical stimuli in the forms of uniaxial and equiaxial cyclic stretches (UNCS and EQCS) can affect endothelial and smooth muscle gene expressions in mRNA level of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). For this purpose, 10% uniaxial UNCS and EQCS (60 cycles/min for 24 h) were applied on HUVECs, and using real-time PCR expressions of three EC specific markers, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, also known as FLK-1) , von Willebrand Factor (vWF) and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) and two SMC specific genes, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) were quantified. Moreover, alterations in cell height were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that cyclic UNCS for 24 h downregulated the expression of all EC markers and upregulated the expression of all SMC markers while low effects on HUVECs height were observed. Cyclic EQCS in the same conditions resulted in minor effect on SMC gene expression in HUVECs, while led to strong reduction in vWF with no significant change in other two endothelial genes. Cyclic EQCS considerably elevated cell height. Results proposed that ECs can transdifferentiate to SMC phenotype under specific microenvironmental conditions.Cell Biology International 01/2015; 39(6). DOI:10.1002/cbin.10443 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary endothelial permeability is an important determinant of vascular adaptation to changes in oxygen tension, blood pressure, levels of growth factors or inflammatory cytokines. The Ras homologous (Rho) family of guanosine triphosphate phosphatases (Rho GTPases), key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, regulate endothelial barrier function in response to a variety of environmental factors and signalling agents via the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, changes in receptor trafficking or the phosphorylation of junctional proteins. This review provides a brief summary of recent knowledge on Rho-GTPase-mediated effects on pulmonary endothelial barrier function and focuses in particular on their role in pulmonary vascular disorders, including pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.Cell and Tissue Research 03/2014; 355(3). DOI:10.1007/s00441-014-1805-0 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cells recognize and respond to changes in intra- and extracellular mechanical conditions to maintain their mechanical homeostasis. Linear contractile bundles of actin filaments and myosin II known as stress fibres (SFs) mediate mechanical signals. Mechanical cues such as excessive stress driven by myosin II and/or external force may damage SFs and induce the local transient accumulation of SF-repair complexes (zyxin and VASP) at the damaged sites. Using an atomic force microscope mounted on a fluorescence microscope, we applied mechanical damage to cells expressing fluorescently tagged cytoskeletal proteins and recorded the subsequent mobilization of SF-repair complexes. We found that a LIM protein, paxillin, transiently accumulated at the damaged sites earlier than zyxin, while paxillin knockdown did not affect the kinetics of zyxin translocation. The C-terminal half of paxillin, comprising four-tandem LIM domains, can still translocate to damaged sites on SFs, suggesting that the LIM domain is essential for the mechanosensory function of paxillin. Our findings demonstrate a crucial role of the LIM domain in mechanosensing LIM proteins.07/2013; 2(7):667-74. DOI:10.1242/bio.20134531