“Dub”bing a tumor suppressor pathway
ABSTRACT The autosomal recessive disease Fanconi anemia (FA) causes bone marrow failure and a hugely increased propensity to develop cancer. Cells from FA patients are prone to chromosome breakage, indicating that FA gene products are required to ensure genomic integrity. Most of the identified FA proteins are components of a nuclear complex whose principal function is to activate FANCD2 by monoubiquitination. Monoubiquitinated FANCD2 accumulates at sites of genome damage, where it probably functions to facilitate DNA repair. A recent paper in Molecular Cell (Nijmanet al., 2005) reports the identification of an enzyme that is responsible for regulating the FA pathway by deactivating FANCD2.
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ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare human genetic disease caused by mutations in any one of 13 known genes that encode proteins functioning in one common signaling pathway, the FA pathway, or in unknown genes. One characteristic of FA is an extremely high incidence of cancer, indicating the importance of the FA pathway in tumor suppression. However, the role of this pathway in the development and progression of human cancers in individuals who do not have FA has not been clearly determined. Here, we report that elevated expression of what we believe to be a novel splice variant of FA complementation group L (FANCL), which we identified and named FAVL, can impair the FA pathway in non-FA human tumor cells and act as a tumor promoting factor. FAVL expression was elevated in half of the human carcinoma cell lines and carcinoma tissue samples tested. Expression of FAVL resulted in decreased FANCL expression by sequestering FANCL to the cytoplasm and enhancing its degradation. Importantly, this impairment of the FA pathway by FAVL elevation provided human cancer cells with a growth advantage, caused chromosomal instability in vitro, and promoted tumor development in a xenograft mouse model. These data indicate that FAVL impairment of the FA pathway likely contributes to the development of non-FA human cancers and therefore add a challenging layer of complexity to the pathogenesis of human cancer. We further believe that these data will prove useful for developing additional tools for fighting human cancer.The Journal of clinical investigation 05/2010; 120(5):1524-34. DOI:10.1172/JCI40908 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The deubiquitinating enzyme USP2a has shown oncogenic properties in many cancer types by impairing ubiquitination of FASN, MDM2, MDMX or Aurora A. Aberrant expression of USP2a has been linked to progression of human tumors, particularly prostate cancer. However, little is known about the role of USP2a or its mechanism of action in bladder cancer. Here, we provide evidence that USP2a is an oncoprotein in bladder cancer cells. Enforced expression of USP2a caused enhanced proliferation, invasion, migration and resistance to several chemotherapeutic reagents, while USP2a loss resulted in slower proliferation, greater chemosensitivity and reduced migratory/invasive capability compared with control cells. USP2a, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, enhanced proliferation in immortalized TRT-HU1 normal human bladder epithelial cells. USP2a bound to cyclin A1 and prevented cyclin A1 ubiquitination, leading to accumulation of cyclin A1 by a block in degradation. Enforced expression of wild type USP2a, but not an inactive USP2a mutant, resulted in cyclin A1 accumulation and increased cell proliferation. We conclude that USP2a impairs ubiquitination and stabilizes an important cell cycle regulator, cyclin A1, raising the possibility of USP2a targeting as a therapeutic strategy against bladder tumors in combination with chemotherapy.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2012; 11(6):1123-30. DOI:10.4161/cc.11.6.19550 · 5.01 Impact Factor