Parental vaccine safety concerns: results from the National Immunization Survey, 2001–2002
ABSTRACT According to the 2002 National Immunization Survey (NIS), vaccination coverage with recommended vaccines among U.S. children aged 19 to 35 months remained near all-time highs. Sustaining this high coverage requires significant effort, including consideration of parental vaccine safety concerns that have led to decreasing coverage in other countries.
The Parental Knowledge and Experiences module was administered to a random subset of NIS respondents from July 2001 to December 2002. The module included questions regarding attitudes toward vaccine safety and side effects, simultaneous vaccine administration, and acceptance of new vaccines. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined associations between attitudes and up-to-date (UTD) vaccination coverage (four or more doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, three or more doses of poliovirus vaccine, one or more doses of any measles-containing vaccine, three or more doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and three or more doses of hepatitis B vaccine), while controlling for demographics.
Ninety-three percent of parents rated vaccines as safe, 6% as neither safe nor unsafe, and 1% as unsafe. After adjusting for demographics, parental safety belief was significantly associated with the child's vaccination status. For children whose parents believed vaccines are safe, the odds of being UTD were 2.9 times the odds of being UTD for children of parents who believed vaccines are unsafe (75% vs 53%, respectively). Children whose parents were neutral about the safety of vaccines had vaccination coverage similar to children whose parents believed vaccines are unsafe.
A significant association with vaccine coverage was found for a small group of parents with high vaccine safety concerns. Strategies focused on safety concerns may yield better protection for these children.
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ABSTRACT: Parental concerns about immunization safety have been covered widely in the media and on the Internet and have been correlated in some studies with under-immunization and the late receipt of immunizations. Phase 1: To (1) measure the prevalence of parents with immunization safety concern, specifically those with high-level concern, (2) determine demographic characteristics and attitudes typical for this subgroup of parents, and (3) determine factors that influence such parents, nevertheless, to have their children immunized. Phase 2: To further explore the racial/ethnic difference found in the first-phase results, specifically to compare the immunization attitudes of Hispanic (both black and white) and non-Hispanic black parents with those of non-Hispanic white parents. ConsumerStyles (2004) survey data of a nationwide panel of U.S. adults were analyzed in January 2006. In Phase 1, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with parental concerns about immunization safety. In Phase 2, logistic regression was used to compare immunization attitudes among non-Hispanic black; Hispanic (both black and white); and non-Hispanic white parents. The response rate was 62% (6207/10,000); analysis was restricted to the 2937 (47%) respondents who were parents with a child aged 18 years or younger; 634 (21%) responded with the highest level of concern, 5 on a 1-to-5-point scale. Demographics (Hispanic ethnicity/nonwhite race, low income, and less education) and negative attitudes toward immunization and the child's healthcare provider were significantly associated with high-level concern. Seventy-two percent of parents with high-level concern responded that the risk of a child getting a disease was their primary reason for having their child immunized, while 17% listed state laws requiring immunizations for school/daycare entry. Importantly, black parents were more likely than white parents to have negative attitudes toward immunizations and their child's healthcare provider. One fifth of parents reported high-level concern with the safety of childhood immunizations. To prevent the erosion of childhood immunization rates, healthcare providers need to learn how to recognize and address these concerns.American Journal of Preventive Medicine 10/2006; 31(3):244-51. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2006.04.006 · 4.28 Impact Factor