Narrative review: celiac disease: understanding a complex autoimmune disorder.

Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Annals of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 16.1). 03/2005; 142(4):289-98. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-142-4-200502150-00011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disorder that has genetic, environmental, and immunologic components. It is characterized by an immune response to ingested wheat gluten and related proteins of rye and barley that leads to inflammation, villous atrophy, and crypt hyperplasia in the intestine. The disease is closely associated with genes that code for human leukocyte antigens DQ2 and DQ8. Transglutaminase 2 appears to be an important component of the disease, both as a deamidating enzyme that can enhance the immunostimulatory effect of gluten and as a target autoantigen in the immune response. Sensitive and specific serologic tests, including those for anti-transglutaminase antibody, are facilitating fast and noninvasive screening for celiac disease. Thus, they are contributing to a more accurate estimate of the prevalence of the disease and its association with other disorders. Celiac disease is associated with increased rates of anemia, osteoporosis, cancer, neurologic deficits, and additional autoimmune disorders. A gluten-free diet is the mainstay of safe and effective treatment of celiac disease, although its effect on some of the extraintestinal manifestations of the disease remains to be determined.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coeliac disease (CD), an autoimmune gluten-dependent enteropathy, can be associated with several extra-intestinal manifestations, including neurological disorders. At present, no data are available on the presence of hearing loss disorder in coeliac patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hearing loss in coeliac patients compared with that in healthy controls. Twenty-four adult coeliac patients and 24 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, smoking and drinking habits were enrolled in the study. Among the coeliac patients, 6 were newly diagnosed and 18 patients were on a gluten-free diet for at least one year. A hearing loss was found in 10 (47.1%) coeliac patients and 2 (9.1%) healthy controls. All CD patients with hearing loss presented a sensorineural hearing loss. The prevalence of hearing loss was significantly higher in coeliac patients than in healthy controls (p = 0.01) but it was not significantly different between untreated (33.3%) and treated (44.4%) coeliac patients (p: NS). Despite the low number of subjects evaluated, the present study showed a higher prevalence of hearing loss in coeliac patients than in healthy controls, suggesting an association between CD and hearing loss. Immunological processes such as ear-specific and non-specific autoantibodies and vasculitis could be the basis of this association. Further longitudinal investigations on a larger sample size will be necessary to confirm the present data.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2007; 42(10):1209-13. DOI:10.1080/00365520701327377 · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anti-transglutaminase antibodies are highly predictive markers of active coeliac disease. Because limited facilities are available for routine use of anti-transglutaminase antibodies assays in developing countries, a simple, economical immunological test would represent a great step forward in the screening of coeliac disease. We determined the prevalence of coeliac disease in two different populations living in an urban area and in a sub-urban impoverished area of Recife (Brazil), using two rapid tests based on detection of anti-transglutaminase antibodies in serum and in one drop of whole blood. Whole-blood and serum samples from 1074 individuals were analysed by the two rapid tests; 580 subjects were university students and 494 subjects were coming from sub-urban impoverished areas, characterized by the endemic presence of filariasis. The positive subjects were evaluated by anti-tranglutaminase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, the coeliac disease-related HLA DQ2/8 and intestinal biopsy. Both rapid assays were positive in 25/1074 subjects, but only 9/25 (4/4 in urban areas, specificity 100%; 5/21 in poor areas, specificity 76%) were confirmed positive by ELISA assay. The nine subjects testing positive for HLA DQ2 and the intestinal biopsy showed the typical coeliac disease lesions (coeliac disease-prevalence: 0.84%, 9/1074); seven coeliacs were asymptomatic and two presented recurrent abdominal pain. The rapid assays were accurate in finding new coeliacs at a remarkably low cost. We are convinced that this new way of testing for coeliac disease can be successfully used by non-specialized personnel in daily practice in developing countries.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 11/2007; 39(10):900-2. DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2007.04.016 · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mallory bodies (MBs) are characteristic of several liver disorders, and consist primarily of keratins with transglutaminase-generated keratin crosslinks. We tested the effect of the transglutaminase-2 (TG2) inhibitor KCC009 on MB formation in a mouse model fed 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). KCC009 decreased DDC-induced liver enlargement without affecting MB formation or extent of liver injury. TG2 protein and activity increased after DDC feeding and localized within and outside hepatocytes. KCC009 inhibited DDC-induced hepatomegaly by affecting hepatocyte cell size rather than proliferation. Hence, TG2 is a potential mediator of injury-induced hepatomegaly via modulation of hepatocyte hypertrophy, and KCC009-mediated TG2 inhibition does not affect mouse MB formation.
    FEBS Letters 05/2006; 580(9):2351--2357. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2006.03.051 · 3.34 Impact Factor