Imaging technology for Neurodegenerative diseases - Progress toward detection of specific pathologies
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United StatesJAMA Neurology (Impact Factor: 7.42). 03/2005; 62(2):196-200. DOI: 10.1001/archneur.62.2.196
Advances in neuroimaging over the past 2 decades are products of breakthroughs in imaging technology, developments of more powerful computers and image-processing software, and expanding knowledge in basic and clinical neuroscience. In addition to the insights into normal brain structure and function that such methods provide and the information that can be gained from disease-related changes in structure and function, the promise of achieving diagnostic specificity through neuroimaging lies with the potential identification of pathognomonic proteins. Recent advances in imaging beta-amyloid plaques, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease, offer such a technological breakthrough and the possibility for more efficient assessment of antiamyloid interventions as well as specific noninvasive diagnostic capabilities.
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- "As presented above, the first challenge to consider in the ND context is to establish the diagnosis as early as possible. Some dyes are available to stain amyloid or amyloid-like structures such as a thioflavin T derivative, can cross the BBB, and the Pittsburgh compound B, used in PET-scan imaging . However, for example for the case of AD, the amyloid burden is not well correlated with the cognitive decline, but the cognitive decline is associated with a decrease in the cortical thickness  and many efforts are made with the goal to develop diagnostic tools  . "
ABSTRACT: As we enter the twenty-first century, several therapies based on using nanoparticles (NPs) ranging in size 1 - 1000 nm have been successfully brought to the clinic to treat cancer, pain and infectious diseases. These therapies bring together the ability of NPs to target the delivery of drugs more precisely, to improve solubility, to prevent degradation, to improve their therapeutic index and to reduce the immune response. NPs come in all shapes and sizes, designed specifically for biomedical applications such as solid lipid polymers, liposomes, dendrimers, nanogels, and quantum dots. These NPs offer many attractive characteristics such as biological stability and biocompatibility, thus incorporating different biological or drug molecules. Among the major therapeutic challenges from neurological diseases through to cancer is the development of nanomaterials that are able to be effective against the disease. In the case of neurodegeneration, one of the most difficult areas to penetrate for drug discovery in the body is the central nervous system, protected by the blood-brain-barrier. Whilst in the case of cancer, the biggest problem is how to specifically target a tumor with sufficient drug without causing side effects or inducing resistance. A new generation of intelligent NPs is emerging for the treatment of human disease such as neurological disorders and cancer. The use of natural alternative therapy is an encouraging idea in drug discovery. To this end as we gain more knowledge into the biological function of exosomes, this will allow us to harness their potential as natural NPs in future therapeutics.Current Drug Metabolism 09/2014; 16(8). DOI:10.2174/1389200216666150812121902 · 2.98 Impact Factor
When Things Go Wrong - Diseases and Disorders of the Human Brain, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0111-6
- "So far, the most successful molecules have been those with a relatively low molecular weight (Figure 2) (Mathis et al., 2005). It has been shown that some benzimidazole and quinoline derivatives tag aggregated forms of tau in vitro and in the context of human brain (Mathis et al., 2005; Okamura et al., 2004; Okamura et al., 2005; Rojo et al., 2007a). This could serve as the milestone for developing neuroimaging technologies to visualize NFTs in the brain of AD patients and those affected with mild cognitive impairments (MCI). "
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- "In this context , several publications have demonstrated that cerebral amyloid aggregates, may not continue to accumulate during AD progress, and thus the amount of SP observed at any time point (including the autopsy) may reflect a competing processes of deposition and resolution of amyloid aggregates . These finding could explain why the PIB-compound and other similar PS-selective technologies are not been widely accepted in the clinical setting as radiotracers for AD, even after almost seven years of its pioneer clinical trial . According to a recent clinical study on PIB imaging , AD diagnosis would be "…possible" but not "probable" and certainly not "definite..." if it is based on SP-selective radiotracers , such as PIB compound and others Fig. (1). "
ABSTRACT: A major limitation in finding therapeutic solutions for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the lack of a reliable method for early diagnosis of this devastating disease. Besides the development of biomarkers in biological fluids of patients, the search for a pathology-specific neuroimaging tools is critical at the present stage in which almost 30 million people suffer this disease worldwide. Several interesting approaches have been developed, however their clinical impact has been low. One of the difficulties has been to find the proper molecular tracers to specifically tag pathognomonic lesions in AD brain, including not only amyloid aggregates but also filaments of the modified microtubule-associated protein tau. In this review, we analyze the evidence towards developing pathology-specific diagnostic tools for AD. We analyze the current evidence and clinical implications of new imaging technologies for AD, and how tau hypothesis and the amyloid cascade hypothesis will impact on these scientific efforts in the near future.Current Alzheimer research 05/2011; 8(6):652-8. DOI:10.2174/156720511796717203 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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