Intracellular Ca2+ release triggers translocation of membrane marker FM1-43 from the extracellular leaflet of plasma membrane into endoplasmic reticulum in T lymphocytes
ABSTRACT Stimulation of T cell receptor in lymphocytes enhances Ca(2+) signaling and accelerates membrane trafficking. The relationships between these processes are not well understood. We employed membrane-impermeable lipid marker FM1-43 to explore membrane trafficking upon mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) in Jurkat T cells. We established that liberation of intracellular Ca(2+) with T cell receptor agonist phytohemagglutinin P or with Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents ionomycin or thapsigargin induced accumulation of FM1-43 within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), nuclear envelope (NE), and Golgi. FM1-43 loading into ER-NE and Golgi was not mediated via the cytosol because other organelles such as mitochondria and multivesicular bodies located in close proximity to the FM1-43-containing ER were free of dye. Intralumenal FM1-43 accumulation was observed even when Ca(2+) signaling in the cytosol was abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Our findings strongly suggest that release of intracellular Ca(2+) may create continuity between the extracellular leaflet of the plasma membrane and the lumenal membrane leaflet of the ER by a mechanism that does not require global cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation.
- SourceAvailable from: Valerie Sier-Ferreira[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Induced regulatory T (iTreg) lymphocytes show promise for application in the treatment of allergic, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. iTreg cells demonstrate advantages over natural Treg (nTreg) cells in terms of increased number of starting population and greater potential to proliferate. Different activation methods to generate iTreg cells result in iTreg cells that are heterogeneous in phenotype and mechanisms of suppression. Therefore it is of interest to explore new techniques to generate iTreg cells and to determine their physiological relevance. METHODS: Using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin and anti-CD3 activation of CD4+CD25- cells we generated in vitro functional CD4+CD25+ iTreg (TregPMA) cells. Functionality of the generated TregPMA cells was tested in vivo in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - CD45RB transfer colitis model. RESULTS: TregPMA cells expressed regulatory markers and proved to ameliorate the disease phenotype in murine CD45RB transfer colitis model. The body weight loss and disease activity scores for TregPMA treated mice were reduced when compared to diseased control group. Histological assessment of colon sections confirmed amelioration of the disease phenotype. Additionally, cytokine analysis showed decreased levels of proinflammatory colonic and plasma IL-6, colonic IL-1 beta and higher levels of colonic IL-17 when compared to diseased control group. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies a new method to generate in vitro iTreg cells (TregPMA cells) which physiological efficacy has been demonstrated in vivo.BMC Gastroenterology 12/2012; 12(1):172. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-12-172 · 2.11 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The precise control of many T cell functions relies on cytosolic Ca(2+) dynamics that is shaped by the Ca(2+) release from the intracellular store and extracellular Ca(2+) influx. The Ca(2+) influx activated following T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated store depletion is considered to be a major mechanism for sustained elevation in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) necessary for T cell activation, whereas the role of intracellular Ca(2+) release channels is believed to be minor. We found, however, that in Jurkat T cells [Ca(2+)](i) elevation observed upon activation of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) by passive store depletion with cyclopiazonic acid, a reversible blocker of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, inversely correlated with store refilling. This indicated that intracellular Ca(2+) release channels were activated in parallel with SOCE and contributed to global [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. Pretreating cells with (-)-xestospongin C (10 microM) or ryanodine (400 microM), the antagonists of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) or ryanodine receptor (RyR), respectively, facilitated store refilling and significantly reduced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation evoked by the passive store depletion or TCR ligation. Although the Ca(2+) release from the IP3R can be activated by TCR stimulation, the Ca(2+) release from the RyR was not inducible via TCR engagement and was exclusively activated by the SOCE. We also established that inhibition of IP3R or RyR down-regulated T cell proliferation and T-cell growth factor interleukin 2 production. These studies revealed a new aspect of [Ca(2+)](i) signaling in T cells, that is SOCE-dependent Ca(2+) release via IP3R and/or RyR, and identified the IP3R and RyR as potential targets for manipulation of Ca(2+)-dependent functions of T lymphocytes.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2008; 283(18):12512-9. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M709330200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The research presented focusses on the self-weight consolidation and strength evolution of soft underwater mud beds. A series of experiments was carried out in 1.5 m tall consolidation columns for a maximum duration of 95 days. Segmented settling columns were designed and built in order to provide well-defined samples of the bed, the strength of which was measured using a high-precision rheometer equipped with a miniature vane.The process of consolidation was modelled as a one-dimensional process using the Gibson equation  written in a Eulerian reference frame and with the particle volume fraction as the dependent variable. The integration of the consolidation equation requires boundary conditions, initial conditions and constitutive equations for effective stress and permeability. The strength evolution is taken into account by a failure criterion which relates strength to effective stress.Constitutive equations for effective stress and permeability and a failure criterion were derived based on the concept of a scale invariant bed structure. The bed is assumed to be formed by aggregates. The properties of the aggregates are assumed to be determined by the clay fraction only. The averaged size of the aggregates determines the effective stress, permeability and shear strength. During consolidation the averaged size of the aggregates reduces, so that effective stress and shear strength increase and permeability decreases. The results of numerical modelling of the experiments agree well with measurements.