Demonstration of isoleucine 199 as a structural determinant for the selective inhibition of human monoamine oxidase B by specific reversible inhibitors.
ABSTRACT Several reversible inhibitors selective for human monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) that do not inhibit MAO A have been described in the literature. The following compounds: 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine, 1,4-diphenyl-2-butene, and trans,trans-farnesol are shown to inhibit competitively human, horse, rat, and mouse MAO B with K(i) values in the low micromolar range but are without effect on either bovine or sheep MAO B or human MAO A. In contrast, the reversible competitive inhibitor isatin binds to all known MAO B and MAO A with similar affinities. Sequence alignments and the crystal structures of human MAO B in complex with 1,4-diphenyl-2-butene or with trans,trans-farnesol provide molecular insights into these specificities. These inhibitors span the substrate and entrance cavities with the side chain of Ile-199 rotated out of its normal conformation suggesting that Ile-199 is gating the substrate cavity. Ile-199 is conserved in all known MAO B sequences except bovine MAO B, which has Phe in this position (the sequence of sheep MAO B is unknown). Phe is conserved in the analogous position in MAO A sequences. The human MAO B I199F mutant protein of MAO B binds to isatin (K(i) = 3 microM) but not to the three inhibitors listed above. The crystal structure of this mutant demonstrates that the side chain of Phe-199 interferes with the binding of those compounds. This suggests that the Ile-199 "gate" is a determinant for the specificity of these MAO B inhibitors and provides a molecular basis for the development of MAO B-specific reversible inhibitors without interference with MAO A function in neurotransmitter metabolism.
Article: Synthesis, stereochemical identification, and selective inhibitory activity against human monoamine oxidase-B of 2-methylcyclohexylidene-(4-arylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazones.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A series of 2-methylcyclohexylidene-(4-arylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazones have been investigated for their ability to inhibit selectively the activity of the human A and B isoforms of monoamine oxidase (MAO). The target compounds, which present a stereogenic center on the cyclohexane ring, were obtained as pure (R) and (S) enantiomers by enantioselective HPLC. The absolute configuration of homochiral forms isolated on a semipreparative scale was obtained by a combined strategy based on chemical correlation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All compounds showed higher activity against the human MAO-B isoform with IC50 values ranging between 26.81 +/- 2.74 microM and 14.20 +/- 0.26 nM, and the assays carried out on the pure enantiomers showed higher activity for the (R) form. A computational study was performed by molecular mechanics, DFT-based quantomechanics, and docking techniques on the most active and human MAO-B selective inhibitor 8.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2008; 51(16):4874-80. · 4.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large series of substituted chalcones have been synthesized and tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit human monoamine oxidases A and B (hMAO-A and hMAO-B). While all the compounds showed hMAO-B selective activity in the micro- and nanomolar ranges, the best results were obtained in the presence of chlorine and hydroxyl or methoxyl substituents. To better understand the enzyme-inhibitor interaction and to explain the selectivity of the most active compounds toward hMAO-B, molecular modeling studies were carried out on new, high resolution, hMAO-B crystallographic structures. For the only compound that also showed activity against hMAO-A as well as low selectivity, the molecular modeling study was also performed on the hMAO-A crystallographic structure. The docking technique provided new insight on the inhibition mechanism and the rational drug design of more potent/selective hMAO inhibitors based on the chalcone scaffold.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2009; 52(9):2818-24. · 4.80 Impact Factor
Article: Using entropy of drug and protein graphs to predict FDA drug-target network: theoretic-experimental study of MAO inhibitors and hemoglobin peptides from Fasciola hepatica.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There are many drugs described with very different affinity to a large number of receptors. In this work, we selected Drug-Target pairs (DTPs/nDTPs) of drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different targets like proteins. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models become a very useful tool in this context to substantially reduce time and resources consuming experiments. Unfortunately, most QSAR models predict activity against only one protein. To solve this problem, we developed here a multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) classifier using the MARCH-INSIDE technique to calculate structural parameters of drug and target plus one Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) to seek the model. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 32:32-15-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 623 out of 678 DTPs (Sensitivity = 91.89%) and 2995 out of 3234 nDTPs (Specificity = 92.61%), corresponding to training Accuracy = 92.48%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series. The model classifies correctly 313 out of 338 DTPs (Sensitivity = 92.60%) and 1411 out of 1534 nDTP (Specificity = 91.98%) in validation series, corresponding to total Accuracy = 92.09% for validation series (Predictability). This model favorably compares with other LDA and ANN models developed in this work and Machine Learning classifiers published before to address the same problem in different aspects. These mt-QSARs offer also a good opportunity to construct drug-protein Complex Networks (CNs) that can be used to explore large and complex drug-protein receptors databases. Finally, we illustrated two practical uses of this model with two different experiments. In experiment 1, we report prediction, synthesis, characterization, and MAO-A and MAO-B pharmacological assay of 10 rasagiline derivatives promising for anti-Parkinson drug design. In experiment 2, we report sampling, parasite culture, SEC and 1DE sample preparation, MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS analysis, MASCOT search, MM/MD 3D structure modeling, and QSAR prediction for different peptides of hemoglobin found in the proteome of the human parasite Fasciola hepatica; which is promising for anti-parasite drug targets discovery.European journal of medicinal chemistry 01/2011; 46(4):1074-94. · 3.27 Impact Factor