Clinical and serological aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazilian dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi
ABSTRACT Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania chagasi. In this study, we evaluated the clinical signs of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), serum protein profile and the antileishmanial IgG antibody production in 86 dogs living in northeast endemic areas of leishmaniasis. Thirty dogs from a leishmaniasis-free area were used as a control group. The major clinical signs of CVL seen were emaciation and skin ulcers (80%), followed by onychogryphosis and conjunctivitis (73%). Depilation was observed in 60% of animals while lymphadenomegaly, splenomegaly, liver enlargement or kidney involvement was less frequent (< or =20%). VL seropositive dogs presented with serum hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypergammaglobulinemia and decreased albumin/globulin ratio. A lower sensitivity and higher specificity was observed for promastigote indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (83 and 100%, respectively) compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (94 and 90%), which uses a crude extract of Leishmania. There was a positive correlation between IFAT and ELISA titers of antileishmanial IgG antibodies (Spearman test, P < 0.05), which was augmented in CVL dogs. This study found that the determination of serum protein, A/G ratio and the use of two different leishmanial serological tests like IFAT and ELISA are essential in CVL screening.
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ABSTRACT: The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is an important step of visceral leishmaniasis control program in Brazil once the dog is the main reservoir host of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conjunctival swab (CS) as a mass-screening tool for CVL molecular diagnosis in an endemic area classified as priority for the Brazilian Ministry of Healthy for surveillance action. A total of 1350 domiciled dogs were screened. The animals were evaluated by serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as screening and immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for confirmation) and by CS associated to real-time PCR, using primers addressed to kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles and SYBR Green. Canine β-globin gene amplification was used to evaluate the sample DNA integrity. A subgroup of 484 animals was also submitted to clinical evaluation. Among the 1350 dogs screened, 369 (27.3 %) were positive by CS real-time PCR and 126 (9.3 %) tested positive by ELISA. Thirty-one percent (39/126) of the ELISA-positive dogs were confirmed by IFAT. CS real-time PCR was able to detect infection in dogs independently of the symptomatology degree (p > 0.05), while ELISA was more sensitive in the group of dogs that present three or more clinical signs related to CVL. The results demonstrated that CS real-time PCR was able to detect a higher number of infected dogs than ELISA and that the prevalence of canine infections has been underestimated by the serological assays. The use of sensitive molecular diagnostic methods like CS real-time PCR, mainly in endemic areas, could greatly contribute to disease control.Parasitology Research 03/2015; 114(6). DOI:10.1007/s00436-015-4418-y · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the performance of the DPP® canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) rapid test, a novel immunochromatographic assay launched by BioManguinhos (Brazil), which was recently included in the new Brazilian protocol for screening CVL in serological surveys. The present study compared the DPP® with the ELISA and IFA produced by BioManguinhos (Brazil) both with L. major-like antigens and with in-house tests using Leishmania infantum chagasi (in-house ELISA and in-house IFA). We analyzed the sera from clinically symptomatic (n = 47) and asymptomatic (n = 38) infected dogs from an endemic area of CVL, as well as from healthy (n = 18) dogs, in addition to the sera of dogs (n = 81) infected with other pathogens. The DPP® and the in-house ELISA showed a sensitivity of 90.6% and 94.1%, respectively, and specificity of 95.1% and 97.5%, respectively, and both presented cross-reactivity only with the sera of dogs with babesiosis, 44% for the DPP® and 22% for the in-house ELISA. The clinical groups were detected equally by the two assays. The ELISA BioManguinhos, IFA BioManguinhos, and in house-IFA showed a good sensitivity, 90.6% 96.5% and 89.4%, respectively, but very low specificity, 77.8%, 69.1% and 65.8%, respectively, due to the high cross-reactivity with the sera from the animals harboring other pathogens. The in-house ELISA provided the highest accuracy (95.8%), followed by the DPP® (92.7%), ELISA BioManguinhos (84.3%), IFA BioManguinhos (83.1%), and in-house IFA (78.0%). The simultaneous use of the DPP® and ELISA BioManguinhos reached a sensitivity of 99.1% and of 82.1% when used sequentially. In conclusion, the DPP® performed well as serological test for CVL, and detected both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs in equal proportions. Although its sensitivity is not ideal yet, discarding the IFA and including the DPP® improved the accuracy of the new Brazilian CVL diagnostic protocol, particularly of detecting truly infected dogs. Moreover, considering the higher specificity of DPP® (95.1% vs 77.8%), positive predictive value (95.1% vs 81.1%) and positive likelihood value (18.3% vs 4.1%) in comparison with the ELISA BioManguinhos, the use of DPP® as a confirmatory test instead of a screening test is suggested.Veterinary Parasitology 09/2014; 205(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.09.002 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum/chagasi Canine visceral leishmaniasis Skin lesions a b s t r a c t In the New World, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is a progressive disease and frequently fatal, is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum/chagasi. It is endemic in many regions of Brazil and occasion-ally occurs in non-endemic regions when dogs from an endemic area are introduced. The aim of the pres-ent study is to compare different skin infection patterns of dogs from two leishmaniasis endemic areas. A histological analysis of dogs from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, a region where epidemic epi-sodes are currently taking place, showed dermic inflammatory infiltrates, composed of numerous vacu-olated parasitized macrophages, few lymphocytes, plasma cells and many degranulated mast cells. In the other region of the study, São Luís, Maranhão state, the skin of dogs presented a remarkable inflammatory reaction composed mainly of plasma cells, lymphocytes and very few parasites. We concluded that there is a difference in the skin lesion patterns of dogs with leishmaniasis that is directly related to the endemic area where the animals live.