[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lattice mismatch in a bimetallic core-shell nanoparticle will cause strain in the epitaxial shell layer, and if it reaches the critical layer thickness misfit dislocations will appear in order to release the increasing strain. These defects are relevant since they will directly impact the atomic and electronic structures thereby changing the physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles. Here we report the direct observation and evolution through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy of dislocations in AuPd core-shell nanoparticles. Our results show that first Shockley partial dislocations (SPD) combined with stacking faults (SF) appear at the last Pd layer; then, as the shell grows the SPDs and SFs appear at the interface and combine with misfit dislocations, which finally diffuse to the free surfaces due to the alloying of Au into the Pd shell. The critical layer thickness was found to be at least 50% greater than in thin films, confirming that shells growth on nanoparticles can sustain more strain due to the tridimensional nature of the nanoparticles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrocapillary coupling coefficient, ς, measures the response of the electrode potential, E, to tangential elastic strain at the surface of an electrode. Using dynamic electro-chemo-mechanical analysis, we study ς(E) simultaneously with cyclic voltammetry. The study covers extended potential intervals on Au, Pt, and Pd, including the electrosorption of oxygen species and of hydrogen. The magnitude and sign of ς vary during the scans, and quite generally the graphs of ς(E) emphasize details which are less obvious or missing in the cyclic voltammograms (CVs). Capacitive processes on the clean electrode surfaces exhibit ς < 0, whereas capacitive processes on oxygen-covered surfaces are characterized by ς < 0 on Au but ς > 0 on Pt and Pd. The findings of ς < 0 during the initial stages of oxygen species adsorption and ς > 0 for hydrogen electrosorption agree with the trend that tensile strain makes surfaces more binding for adsorbates. However, the large hysteresis of oxygen electrosorption on all electrodes raises the question: is the exchange current associated with that process sufficient for its measurement by potential response during small cyclic strain?
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