Interinstitutional variability and effect of tissue fixative on the interpretation of a Barrett cytokeratin 7/20 immunoreactivity pattern in Barrett esophagus.
ABSTRACT A unique pattern of cytokeratin (CK) 7/20 immunostaining (diffuse staining with CK7 and surface and superficial crypt staining with CK20) has been reported to be useful in differentiating Barrett esophagus (BE) from intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. However, there are conflicting results regarding the prevalence of a BE CK7/20 staining pattern in BE between different studies. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the degree of variability in interpretation of a BE CK7/20 pattern and to determine the reasons for variability when present. Esophageal and gastric mucosal biopsies from 67 patients with BE and antral intestinal metaplasia at 2 institutions were immunostained for CK7/20. All cases were evaluated for the presence of a BE CK7/20 pattern by 2 gastrointestinal pathologists from each institution, and the degree of agreement between institutions was determined. To determine the effect of tissue fixation and staining methods on the pattern of CK7/20 staining, unstained slides were exchanged between institutions, stained separately by each institution, and reexamined by all pathologists. There was excellent agreement on the presence of a BE CK7/20 staining pattern between pathologists at the same institution but only moderate agreement between pathologists at different institutions (71% overall, kappa = 0.58). Among BE cases, a BE CK7/20 staining pattern was identified in 50 (96%) of 52 cases by Cleveland Clinic Foundation pathologists but only 35 (67%) of 52 cases by Brigham and Women's Hospital pathologists. The major source of disagreement related to the interpretation of weak or variable CK7 staining of deep intestinalized mucosa in BE biopsies that were fixed in Hollande, but not those that were fixed in formalin. After the creation of a new set of criteria for a positive BE CK7/20 staining pattern, which took into account the effects of Hollande's fixative, the degree of agreement between pathologists at each of the 2 institutions was excellent (100%, kappa value = 1.0). Therefore, the CK7/20 staining pattern is influenced by the type of fixative used. Only a moderate level of interobserver agreement among pathologists regarding a BE CK7/20 pattern can be achieved if one is not aware of these effects. Nevertheless, specific criteria for interpretation of CK7/20 staining can be successfully applied between institutions and need to be developed before use of this technique in clinical practice.
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ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the endoscopic and histologic features of Barrett's oesophagus(BO) as well as some of the recent advancements and controversies. BO represents metaplastic conversion of normal squamous epithelium of tubular oesophagus to columnar epithelium. The diagnosis of BO requires a combination of endoscopic and histopathologic findings. There is worldwide controversy regarding the exact definition of BO, particularly with regard to the requirement to histologically identify goblet cells in biopsies. The presence and detectability of goblet cells might vary depending on a variety of factors and is subject to sampling error. Therefore, a systematic biopsy sampling with sufficient number of biopsies is currently recommended to limit the likelihood of a false negative result for detection of goblet cells. There are both endoscopic and pathologic challenges in evaluating gastro-oesophageal junction biopsies in patients with irregular Z lines to determine the exact location of the sample (i.e., oesophagus versus stomach). Recently, several novel endoscopic techniques have been developed to improve BO detection. However, none have been validated yet in clinical practice. The surveillance of patients with BO relies on histologic evaluation of dysplasia. However, there are significant pathologic limitations and diagnostic variability in evaluating the presence and grading of BO dysplasia, particularly with regard to the more recently recognized non-intestinal types of dysplasia. All BO dysplasia samples should be reviewed by an expert gastrointestinal pathologist to confirm the diagnosis. Finally, it is important to emphasize that close interaction between gastroenterologists and pathologists is essential to ensure proper evaluation of endoscopic biopsies in order to optimize the surveillance and clinical management of patients with BO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Baillière' s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Gastroenterology 11/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bpg.2014.11.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma and associated mortality has risen dramatically over the past several decades and, thus, it is increasingly important to understand its pathogenesis and risk factors. Barrett esophagus is the established precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma that progresses through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Its risk of transforming to carcinoma is not as high as previously reported and there appears to be biological heterogeneity among patients with this disease. The overall prevalence of Barrett esophagus in the United States ranges from 1-25% and is closer to 5% in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Because of the frequency of Barrett esophagus and associated implications, it is important for the practicing pathologist to have a thorough understanding of this disease and its diagnostic pitfalls. In this review, we will discuss issues associated with the diagnosis of Barrett esophagus, including the definition of Barrett esophagus and its distinction from carditis with intestinal metaplasia. We will also discuss challenges in the grading of dysplasia and new variants of dysplasia, including crypt dysplasia and foveolar type dysplasia. Finally, we will touch upon the evaluation of dysplasia in endoscopic mucosal resection specimens.Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 03/2014; DOI:10.1053/j.semdp.2014.02.005 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Barrett's esophagus is characterized by the presence of goblet cells. However, when alcian-blue is utilized, another type of cells, called columnar blue cells, is frequently present in the distal esophagus of patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus. Cytokeratin 7 and 20 immunoreactivity has been previously studied in areas of intestinal metaplasia at the esophagogastric junction. However, the expression of these cytokeratins in columnar blue cells has not been characterized. To compare the expression of cytokeratin 7 and 20 in goblet cells and columnar blue cells in patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus. Biopsies from 86 patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus were evaluated. The biopsies were stained for cytokeratin 7 and 20. Goblet cells were present in 75 cases and columnar blue cells in 50 cases. Overall, cytokeratin 7 expression was similar in goblet cells and columnar blue cells (P = 0.25), while cytokeratin 20 was more common in goblet cells (P <0.001). In individuals with both cell types, however, cytokeratin 7 staining was the same in goblet and columnar blue cells in 95% of the cases, and cytokeratin 20 staining was the same in 77%. Goblet cells and columnar blue cells have similar immunohistochemical staining patterns for cytokeratins 7 and 20 in patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus.Arquivos de gastroenterologia 01/2009; 46(2):127-31. DOI:10.1590/S0004-28032009000200010