Melanoma of unknown primary: experience at Massachusetts General Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
ABSTRACT Melanoma may present metastatically without an identifiable primary lesion. To further characterize the epidemiology of melanoma of unknown primary (MUP), we report our experience with a cohort of MUP patients. We retrospectively reviewed patients seen at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) between 1986 and 1996 with follow-up to 2002. Data were analysed using log-rank and proportional hazards analyses, with death from any cause as the main outcome measure. Of the 2485 melanoma patients seen, 65 (2.6%) had MUP; 41 patients were male [63.1%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 50.2%, 74.7%]. The median age at diagnosis was 54.1 years (interquartile range, 39.4-67.1 years). Thirty patients had lymph node metastases, 12 cutaneous or subcutaneous metastases and 23 visceral metastases. Of the 62 patients (95.4%) with at least some follow-up, there were 42 deaths from any cause. Patients with lymph node metastases survived significantly longer than patients with other metastases [5-year survival 38.7% (95% CI, 18.1%, 59.1%) vs. 13.9% (95% CI, 4.4%, 28.6%); P<0.01]. After adjusting for stage and age at diagnosis, there was some evidence that men survived longer than women [hazard ratio (HR)=0.55; 95% CI, 0.28, 1.09]. Survival did not differ amongst patients with different types of non-lymph node metastases. The 5-year survival rates in this cohort did not differ from those of historical controls with known primaries. The demographic and survival characteristics of this MUP cohort mirrored those found in previous studies. More studies of MUP patients, as well as a standardized definition of MUP, may shed light on the pathogenesis and prognosis of MUP.
- SourceAvailable from: Alexander Christopher Jonathan van Akkooi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Melanoma of unknown primary site (MUP) is not a completely understood entity with nodal metastases as the most common first clinical manifestation. The aim of this multicentric study was to assess frequency and type of oncogenic BRAF/NRAS/KIT mutations in MUP with clinically detected nodal metastases in relation to clinicopathologic features and outcome.Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The outcome of patients with palpable melanoma metastases in lymph nodes in the presence (MKP) or absence (MUP) of an identifiable primary tumour remains controversial. Some of the previous studies contained large case series that included historical patients. We aimed to compare outcomes of those with MUPs versus MKPs with palpable lymph node invasion, after staging with modern imaging technology. A prospective study of patients from a single tertiary institution who were undergoing lymph node dissection for palpable metastatic melanoma between 2000 and 2011 was conducted. All patients were ascertained by CT scanning and most diagnosed after 2004 had PET scanning also. Clinicopathological details about the primary melanoma and lymph node dissections were gathered. Factors associated with recurrence and melanoma-specific mortality in those with MKP and with MUP were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Of 485 patients studied, 82 had MUP and 403 had MKP. Patients were followed-up for a median of 17.4 and 19.0 months, for MKP and MUP respectively. Five-year adjusted melanoma-specific survival was 58% for MUPs versus 49% for MKPs and was not significantly different between the two groups (adjusted Cox proportional Hazard ratio=0.88 95%CI [0.58, 1.33] p=0.54). Previously established prognostic factors such as number of positive nodes and extracapsular extension were confirmed in both sets of patients. We conclude that among melanoma patients presenting with clinically detectable nodes, when accurately staged, those without an identifiable primary lesion have similar outcomes to patients with MKP. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 06/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Several reports in the literature suggest a difference in outcome between melanoma patients with macroscopic (clinically palpable) nodal disease from an unknown primary (MUP) and a known primary (MKP). The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes for MUP and MKP patients after therapeutic lymph node dissection (TLND) for macroscopic nodal disease. From a large, prospective, single-institution database, the details of melanoma patients who first presented with macroscopic nodal disease and underwent TLND between 1971 and 2010 were extracted and analyzed. There were 287 MUP patients and 264 MKP patients who fulfilled the study selection criteria. MUP patients had better disease-free, distant metastasis-free, and melanoma-specific survival after their TLND than MKP patients (all p < 0.001). Extranodal melanoma extension, >3 positive lymph nodes, and administration of adjuvant radiotherapy were all independent predictors of reduced disease-free and melanoma-specific survival (all p < 0.05). MUP patients also had a better prognosis than MKP patients whose primary melanoma had regression (p = 0.001). The occurrence and improved outcome of MUP patients may be due to immune-induced total regression of the primary tumor and better immunologic prevention or control of distant metastatic disease. Alternatively, in some MUP patients, melanoma may not be metastatic but may originate de novo from nevus cells in lymph nodes, with the more favorable prognosis attributable to their primary nodal origin and complete surgical resection.Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor