Sample type is crucial to the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia by PCR.
ABSTRACT Sensitive and specific methods for rapid laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were not available until nucleic acid amplification methods were developed. The choice of sample type and method of sampling are crucial to optimal diagnostic efficacy. Three types of respiratory samples from 32 young military conscripts with pneumonia were collected during an outbreak of M. pneumoniae infection. Sputum, nasopharyngeal aspirate and throat swab specimens were tested by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR with liquid-phase probe hybridization, and the results were compared with serology. The PCR result was positive for 22 (69 %) of the sputa, 16 (50 %) of the aspirates and 12 (37.5 %) of the swabs. Serology with increasing or high titres supported the positive findings in all instances. Sputum, when available, is clearly the best sample type for young adults with pneumonia.
Article: Polymerase chain reaction is superior to serology for the diagnosis of acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and reveals a high rate of persistent infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection is traditionally based on serology, which may require more than two weeks for diagnostic antibodies to develop. PCR-based methods offer earlier diagnosis. During a community outbreak of MP infection, we compared semi-nested and real-time PCR of oropharyngeal swabs with serology for diagnosis of MP infection at different time points after disease onset. PCR-positive individuals were followed longitudinally to assess the persistence of MP DNA in throat secretions. We also studied carriage of MP among household contacts and school children. MP infection was diagnosed in 48 of 164 patients with respiratory tract infection. Forty-five (29%) had detectable MP DNA in oropharynx. A significant increase in MP IgG IgG titre or MP IgM antibodies was detected in 44/154 (27%) subjects. Two MP PCR-positive patients lacked antibody responses. Sera were missing from another two patients. The agreement between serology and PCR was good, kappa = 0.90. During the first three weeks after disease onset the performance of PCR was excellent and all patients but one were detected. In contrast, only 21% of the patients with confirmed MP infection were positive by serum 1 during the first symptomatic week (56% during the second and 100% during the third week). Only 1/237 (0.4%) school children was positive by PCR. This child had respiratory symptoms. Eighteen of 22 (75%) symptomatic household contacts were MP PCR positive. Persistence of MP DNA in the throat was common. Median time for carriage of MP DNA was 7 weeks after disease onset (range 2 days - 7 months). Adequate antibiotic treatment did not shorten the period of persistence. Bacterial load, measured by quantitative real-time PCR declined gradually, and all followed patients eventually became PCR-negative. PCR is superior to serology for diagnosis of MP infection during the early phases of infection. Persistent, sometimes long-term, carriage of MP DNA in the throat is common following acute infection, and is not affected by antibiotic therapy. Asymptomatic carriage of MP even during an outbreak is uncommon.BMC Microbiology 02/2008; 8:93. · 3.04 Impact Factor
Article: Development of triplex SYBR green real-time PCR for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. without extraction of DNA.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. are prevalent causes of community-acquired pneumonia, rapid and sensitive diagnosis is difficult. Real-time PCR provides rapid and sensitive diagnosis, however, DNA extraction is still required, which is time-consuming, costly and includes a risk of contamination. Therefore, we aimed to develop triplex real-time PCR without DNA extraction. AmpDirect(R) Plus which inhibits PCR inhibitors was used as the PCR buffer. Melting temperatures of the PCR products for the three bacteria were analyzed by SYBR green triplex real-time PCR and were found to be significantly different. Detection limits of bacteria cells diluted in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were comparable with the detection limits of previously reported real-time PCR. Our PCR without DNA extraction and probe real-time PCR with DNA extraction showed identical results for the detection of the three bacteria from 38 respiratory specimens (sputum, endotracheal aspirates, and NPAs) collected from patients with pneumonia. No cross-reaction with other bacteria was observed. Our triplex real-time PCR successfully detected and differentiated the three bacteria. Although further field tests are required, our assay is a promising method for the rapid and cost-effective detection of the three bacteria.Japanese journal of infectious diseases. 05/2010; 63(3):173-80.