Association of active γ-secretase complex with lipid rafts
ABSTRACT Cholesterol has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the underlying mechanisms are not yet clear, several studies have provided evidence for the involvement of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in the production of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta), the major component of amyloid deposits in AD. In this regard, the gamma-secretase complex is responsible for the final cleavage event in the processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP), resulting in Abeta generation. The gamma-secretase complex is a multiprotein complex composed of presenilin, nicastrin (NCT), APH-1, and PEN-2. Recent reports have suggested that gamma-secretase activity is predominantly localized in lipid rafts, and presenilin and NCT have been reported to be localized in lipid rafts. In this study, various biochemical methods, including coimmunoprecipitation, in vitro gamma-secretase assay, and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) treatment, are employed to demonstrate that all four components of the active endogenous gamma-secretase complex, including APH-1 and PEN-2, are associated with lipid rafts in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Treatment with statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA-reductase inhibitors, significantly decreased the association of the gamma-secretase complex with lipid rafts without affecting the distribution of flotillin-1. This effect was partially abrogated by the addition of geranylgeraniol. These results suggest that both cholesterol and protein isoprenylation influence the active gamma-secretase complex association with lipid rafts.
- SourceAvailable from: Vassiliki Nikoletopoulou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The concept that target tissues determine the survival of neurons has inspired much of the thinking on neuronal development in vertebrates, not least because it is supported by decades of research on nerve growth factor (NGF) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Recent discoveries now help to understand why only some developing neurons selectively depend on NGF. They also indicate that the survival of most neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is not simply regulated by single growth factors like in the PNS. Additionally, components of the cell death machinery have begun to be recognized as regulators of selective axonal degeneration and synaptic function, thus playing a critical role in wiring up the nervous system.The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2013; 203(3):385-93. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201306136 · 9.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: β-Secretase, BACE1 is a neuron-specific membrane-associated protease that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) to generate β-amyloid protein (Aβ). BACE1 is partially localized in lipid rafts. We investigated whether lipid raft localization of BACE1 affects Aβ production in neurons using a palmitoylation-deficient mutant and further analyzed the relationship between palmitoylation of BACE1 and its shedding and dimerization. We initially confirmed that BACE1 is mainly palmitoylated at four C-terminal cysteine residues in stably transfected neuroblastoma cells. We found that raft localization of mutant BACE1 lacking the palmitoylation modification was markedly reduced in comparison to wild-type BACE1 in neuroblastoma cells as well as rat primary cortical neurons expressing BACE1 via recombinant adenoviruses. In primary neurons, expression of wild-type and mutant BACE1 enhanced production of Aβ from endogenous or overexpressed APP to similar extents with the β-C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) of APP mainly distributed in nonraft fractions. Similarly, β-CTF was recovered mainly in nonraft fractions of neurons expressing Swedish mutant APP only. These results show that raft association of BACE1 does not influence β-cleavage of APP and Aβ production in neurons, and support the view that BACE1 cleaves APP mainly in nonraft domains. Thus, we propose a model of neuronal Aβ generation involving mobilization of β-CTF from nonraft to raft domains. Additionally, we obtained data indicating that palmitoylation plays a role in BACE1 shedding but not dimerization.05/2012; 2(3):270-82. DOI:10.1002/brb3.52
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to slow neuronal loss in several brain regions. It is characterised by the presence of cerebral senile plaques comprised of aggregated amyloid-β peptides. Transcriptional regulation of the γ-secretase complex, which cleaves the β-amyloid precursor protein to produce Aβ-peptides, could modulate the pathological phenotype of AD patients. This study investigates whether rosuvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, modulates the expression of genes involved in the function of the γ-secretase complex, in a human cellular model for Aβ peptide accumulation. In particular, we analysed the effect of the statin combined with apoptotic induction. Experimental apoptosis was induced by thapsigargin treatment, a drug that depletes intracellular calcium stores via inhibition of the calcium ATPase pump. Notably, systemic calcium dysregulation accompanies almost all of the brain pathology processes observed in AD. We found differential transcriptional regulation of some γ-secretase cofactors relative to rosuvastatin treatment, in cells expressing Swedish mutant APP. Interestingly, this statin down-regulated the transcription of some enzyme cofactors, similar to treatment with thapsigargin. However, rosuvastatin neither affected the basal Aβ levels nor counteracted APP processing or Aβ over-production triggered by the thapsigargin. Our results provide evidence that rosuvastatin alters gene expression of the γ-secretase complex without affecting enzyme activity.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 10/2010; 43(3):461-9. DOI:10.1007/s12031-010-9465-3 · 2.76 Impact Factor