Primary perineal wound closure after preoperative radiotherapy and abdominoperineal resection has a high incidence of wound failure.
ABSTRACT Neoadjuvant radiation therapy has been used increasingly to downstage rectal cancer and decrease local recurrence. Despite its efficacy, preoperative radiation therapy may inhibit healing and contribute to wound complications. This study was designed to evaluate perineal wound complications after abdominoperineal resection.
The clinical records of a consecutive series of patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection for rectal carcinoma between 1988 and 2002 were reviewed. Demographic data, disease stage, and use of preoperative radiation therapy were recorded. Major wound complications included delayed wound healing (>1 month), wound infection requiring drainage/debridement, or reoperation.
A total of 160 patients underwent abdominoperineal resection with primary closure of the perineal wound (mean age, 63 +/- 12 years); 117 (73 percent) patients received preoperative radiation therapy; 114 received radiation therapy for rectal cancer (radiation therapy + chemotherapy = 107, radiation therapy alone = 7); 3 received radiation therapy for other pelvic malignancies. Median radiation dose was 5,040 (range, 900-5,400) cGY. Overall wound complication rate was 41 percent. Major wound complication rate was 35 percent. Delayed healing was the most common complication (24 percent), followed by infection (10 percent). Radiation therapy increased the risk of any wound complication (47 vs. 23 percent; P = 0.005), risk of a major wound complication (41 vs. 19 percent; P = 0.021), and risk of infection (14 vs. 0 percent; P = 0.015). Risk of wound complications did not correlate with age, gender, disease stage, smoking, or diabetes.
Wound complications are frequent after abdominoperineal resection and primary closure of the perineum. Preoperative radiation therapy doubles the rate of total and major perineal wound complications. Alternatives to primary perineal closure should be considered, particularly after radiation therapy.
Article: Elevated CEA Levels and Low Distance of the Tumor from the Anal Verge are Predictors of Incomplete Response to Chemoradiation in Patients with Rectal Cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate pretreatment clinical parameters as predictive factors for complete pathological response after long-term chemoradiotherapy (RCT) for rectal cancer. Tumor downstaging after RCT for rectal cancer can be obtained in half of cases, whereas a complete pathological response (CPR) is reported to range between 15 and 30 %. It is not possible to foresee before therapies who will respond. METHODS: Patients with stage II-III rectal cancer that had undergone RCT and rectal resection between January 1995 and October 2010 were considered. Patients were divided in those who achieved a CPR, "CR" group, and those who did not achieve a CPR, "NCR" group. Univariate and multivariate analyses between groups were performed considering the clinical parameters: gender, age, ASA score, preoperative hematic CEA, tumor grading; distance of the tumor from the anal verge, maximum tumor diameter, TNM stage, and neoadjuvant treatment details. RESULTS: Among 260 patients, 43 (16.5 %) achieved a CPR. The two groups resulted homogeneous for age, sex, pretreatment status, and tumor stage. A CEA <5 ng/dl and distance from anal verge >5 cm were correlated with CPR at multivariate analysis. Patients with both these conditions presented a significantly higher CPR rate (30.6 %) as well as improved 5-year survival. CPR was also correlated with improved survival. CONCLUSIONS: Very low tumors with a high serum CEA are very unlikely to reach a CPR. The predictive value of these easily available clinical factors should not be underestimated, and better therapeutic strategies for these tumors are needed.Annals of Surgical Oncology 09/2012; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the incidence of local recurrence after curative resection of rectal cancer has decreased due to the understanding of the anatomy of pelvic structures and the adoption of total mesorectal excision, local recurrence in the pelvis still remains a significant and troublesome complication. While surgery for recurrent rectal cancer may offer a chance for a cure, conservative management, including radiation and chemotherapy, remain widely accepted courses of treatment. Recent improvement in imaging modalities, perioperative care, and surgical techniques, including bone resection and wound coverage, have allowed for reductions in operative mortality, though postoperative morbidity still remains high. In this review, the techniques, including surgical approaches, employed for management of locally recurrent rectal cancer are highlighted.Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology 12/2012; 28(6):286-93.
Article: A 12-year experience of the Trendelenburg perineal approach for abdominoperineal resection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The abdominoperineal resection (APR) is the current accepted surgical technique for low rectal cancers. Negative circumferential surgical margins are an important prognostic indicator and are best obtained by producing a cylindrical specimen. The 'ideal' approach to produce such specimen is debated between a standard lithotomy position and turning the patient in the prone position in the later stages of the procedure. We aimed to assess results of perineal morbidity and oncological outcomes following the lithotomy approach at a single institution. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively at a single institution. All patients undergoing the APR for low rectal cancers were included in the current study. Patients underwent this procedure in the standard lithotomy position and a mucocutaneous flap was not routinely used for closure of the perineal wound. The primary outcome measures in this study were local and systemic tumour recurrence and overall patient survival. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients undergoing APR were included in the current study. Majority of patients (87%) received neoadjuvant therapy. Perineal morbidity was observed in 11% of patients loco-regional recurrence occurred in 4% at 5 years. One-, 3- and 5-year survival was 87, 75 and 66%, respectively. Patients with T3/4 disease and positive circumferential surgical margins had significantly poorer survival outcomes. CONCLUSION: APR can be performed in the lithotomy position with acceptable perineal morbidity and oncological safety. Negative circumferential margins can be achieved reliably by producing a cylindrical specimen with this position.ANZ Journal of Surgery 04/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor