Cigarette advertising in Black, Latino, and White magazines, 1998–2002: an exploratory investigation

Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego State University, 6363 Alvarado Court, San Diego, CA 92120, USA.
Ethnicity & disease (Impact Factor: 1). 02/2005; 15(1):63-7.
Source: PubMed


To examine the number, type (menthol vs non-menthol), brand (Black, White, Women's, Other), and size of cigarette ads in Black, Latino, and White magazines.
Analysis of digital photographs of 274 cigarette ads appearing in Ebony (Black), People (White), and People in Spanish (Latino) for the 4.5-year period of January 1998 to August 2002.
Black magazines were 9.8 times and Latino magazines 2.6 times more likely than White magazines to contain ads for menthol cigarettes. Black and Latino magazines also contained significantly more ads for brands (Virginia Slims) that target women.
The tobacco industry continues to target Blacks with menthol cigarette ads, appears now to be targeting Latinos similarly, and targets Black and Latino women with additional, tailored cigarette ads.

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    • "The Hispanic/Latino audience did not appear to be a large focus of cigarette ads overall, with a mean of 1.58 ads per issue (compared with 1.87 ads per issue of People and 2.25 ads per issue of Ebony). Although most ads were for non-menthol cigarettes, the Spanish version of People was 2.6 times more likely than the English version of People to contain ads for menthol cigarettes [8]. The authors concluded that the tobacco industry appeared to be using similar strategies to market to the Hispanic/Latino population as had been used with the Black/African American population. "
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    • "In fact, higher household income and higher level of acculturation were shown to be associated with higher smoking prevalence among California’s Hispanics [50] and that probably explained the higher incidence of lung cancer among Hispanics in higher SES groups. Although the prevalence of smoking among Hispanic women in general was much lower compared to women in other racial/ethnic groups, there have been worrisome suggestions that the tobacco industry has increasingly aimed their advertising toward Hispanic women, both Spanish speaking and English speaking [51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: African Americans currently bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality due to smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages predicts smoking. This study compared the concentration (proportion of media messages that are for tobacco) and density (pro-tobacco media messages per person) of pro-tobacco media messages between African American and Caucasian markets. We searched Medline (1966 to June 2006), PsychINFO (1974 to June 2006), and CINAHL (1982 to June 2006) for studies from peer-reviewed journals directly comparing the volume of pro-tobacco media messages in African American and Caucasian markets. From each study, we extracted the number of total media messages, the number of tobacco-related messages, and the number of residents living in each market area. We calculated the concentration and density of tobacco advertising in each market. Out of 131 studies identified, 11 met eligibility criteria, including seven comparing billboard/signage in African American and Caucasian markets and four comparing magazine advertising in African American and Caucasian markets. Meta-analysis estimated a pooled odds ratio of 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 2.6) for a given billboard being smoking-related in African American vs. Caucasian market areas (i.e., concentration). The pooled rate ratio of the density of smoking-related billboards was 2.6 (95% CI 1.5, 4.7) in African American vs. Caucasian market areas. Magazine data were insufficient for meta-analysis. Available data indicated that African Americans are exposed to a higher volume of pro-tobacco advertising in terms of both concentration and density. These findings have important implications for research, policy measures, and educational interventions involving racial disparities due to tobacco.
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