Cigarette advertising in Black, Latino, and White magazines, 1998-2002: an exploratory investigation.
ABSTRACT To examine the number, type (menthol vs non-menthol), brand (Black, White, Women's, Other), and size of cigarette ads in Black, Latino, and White magazines.
Analysis of digital photographs of 274 cigarette ads appearing in Ebony (Black), People (White), and People in Spanish (Latino) for the 4.5-year period of January 1998 to August 2002.
Black magazines were 9.8 times and Latino magazines 2.6 times more likely than White magazines to contain ads for menthol cigarettes. Black and Latino magazines also contained significantly more ads for brands (Virginia Slims) that target women.
The tobacco industry continues to target Blacks with menthol cigarette ads, appears now to be targeting Latinos similarly, and targets Black and Latino women with additional, tailored cigarette ads.
SourceAvailable from: Jenine Kinne Harris[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10/2013; 10(10):4571-83. DOI:10.3390/ijerph10104571 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Targeting of marginalized groups with aggressive tobacco marketing has been identified as exacerbating health disparities. However, interpretation of such targeting by groups varies, from surprise and outrage to regarding such marketing as evidence of social legitimacy. We sought to learn how an often-overlooked marginalized group, older adults, would respond to industry documents offering evidence of tobacco company target marketing. We conducted 10 focus groups in California cities with older (>=50 years) smokers and former smokers. A set of previously-undisclosed tobacco industry documents related to target marketing was shown to the group in sequence. Audiotaped discussions were transcribed and data analyzed using qualitative approaches. Responses to evidence of tobacco industry targeting varied, with some regarding it as exploitive and others as normal business practice. However, in most groups, discussions turned to government's failure to protect the public---even though government action /inaction was not prompted nor addressed in the discussion documents. Given the Food and Drug Administration's new authority to regulate tobacco products, these findings suggest that some of the tobacco industry's "best customers" (older, established smokers and ex-smokers) may be strong supporters of government regulation of tobacco.Tobacco Induced Diseases 08/2013; 11(1):17. DOI:10.1186/1617-9625-11-17 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Publicly available internal tobacco industry documents were analyzed to answer the following questions regarding menthol cigarette marketing and consumer perception: 1) Are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? 2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? 3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? 4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? More than 800 relevant documents were identified on 1) marketing menthol with health assurance messages; 2) user imagery-focused marketing; 3) consumer perceptions of menthol products; and 4) targeting specific populations. Analyses indicated menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African Americans, young people, and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. From analyses of these documents, it is concluded that marketing emphasizing menthol may attract consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find â€œregularâ€ cigarettes undesirable.