Cigarette advertising in Black, Latino and White magazines, 1998-2002: An exploratory investigation

Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego State University, 6363 Alvarado Court, San Diego, CA 92120, USA.
Ethnicity & disease (Impact Factor: 1). 02/2005; 15(1):63-7.
Source: PubMed


To examine the number, type (menthol vs non-menthol), brand (Black, White, Women's, Other), and size of cigarette ads in Black, Latino, and White magazines.
Analysis of digital photographs of 274 cigarette ads appearing in Ebony (Black), People (White), and People in Spanish (Latino) for the 4.5-year period of January 1998 to August 2002.
Black magazines were 9.8 times and Latino magazines 2.6 times more likely than White magazines to contain ads for menthol cigarettes. Black and Latino magazines also contained significantly more ads for brands (Virginia Slims) that target women.
The tobacco industry continues to target Blacks with menthol cigarette ads, appears now to be targeting Latinos similarly, and targets Black and Latino women with additional, tailored cigarette ads.

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Available from: Hope Landrine, Dec 28, 2013
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    • "The Hispanic/Latino audience did not appear to be a large focus of cigarette ads overall, with a mean of 1.58 ads per issue (compared with 1.87 ads per issue of People and 2.25 ads per issue of Ebony). Although most ads were for non-menthol cigarettes, the Spanish version of People was 2.6 times more likely than the English version of People to contain ads for menthol cigarettes [8]. The authors concluded that the tobacco industry appeared to be using similar strategies to market to the Hispanic/Latino population as had been used with the Black/African American population. "
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    • "In fact, higher household income and higher level of acculturation were shown to be associated with higher smoking prevalence among California’s Hispanics [50] and that probably explained the higher incidence of lung cancer among Hispanics in higher SES groups. Although the prevalence of smoking among Hispanic women in general was much lower compared to women in other racial/ethnic groups, there have been worrisome suggestions that the tobacco industry has increasingly aimed their advertising toward Hispanic women, both Spanish speaking and English speaking [51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Research on the use and effect of menthol content in cigarettes is well established. More recent is research on the effect of menthol content on the smoking habits of school-aged youth. This study examined the relationship between menthol content and current cigarette use to test whether menthol content is predictive of current cigarette use among school-aged youth.Methods. This study included all respondents to the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey who were 17 years old and younger and who indicated they were current smokers. Ordinal and generalized logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between menthol content and current cigarette use, controlling for sociocontextual and demographic factors. All analyses were performed in STATA 10.Results. In general, menthol content has a positive but not statistically significant effect on current cigarette use, controlling for sociocontextual factors. However, menthol content has a positive and statistically significant effect on days smoked (OR=1.2; p=0.046), on current cigarette use, controlling for demographic factors (OR=1.3; p=0.011); and on current cigarette use for light smokers (OR=1.3; p<0.001) and heavy smokers (OR=2.3; p<0.001), controlling for demographic factors.Conclusion: More research is needed to understand the true effect of menthol content on the smoking habits of school-aged youth across the smoking continuum.
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