Considering that HIV-1 accumulates and replicates actively within lymphoid tissues, any strategy that will decrease viral stores in these tissues might be beneficial to the infected host. Follicular dendritic cells (FDC), B lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells like macrophages, and activated CD4(+) T cells are abundant in lymphoid tissues, and all express substantial levels of the HLA-DR determinant of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II). Monocyte-derived macrophages, which are also CD4(+) and express HLA-DR, are considered to be the most frequent hosts of HIV-1 in tissues of infected individuals. This chapter describes a method for the generation of sterically stabilized immunoliposomes grafted with anti-HLA-DR antibodies that allows efficient delivery of drugs to lymphoid tissues. The method first involves the production of murine HLA-DR (clone Y-17, IgG(2b)) and human HLA-DR (clone 2.06, IgG(1)) antibodies from hybridomas in mice and their purification from ascites fluids. This step is followed by the production of Fab' fragments of antibodies 2.06 and Y-17 that are grafted at the surface of sterically stabilized immunoliposomes instead of the complete IgG to reduce their immunogenicity. The preparation of sterically stabilized liposomes, the composition of which allows an efficient entrapment and retention of several drugs, by the method of thin lipid film hydratation followed by extrusion through polycarbonate membranes is then described. This step is followed by the removal of unencapsulated drug, when present, by low-speed centrifugation of the liposomal preparation through a Sephadex G-50 column. These liposomes contain a fixed amount of poly(ethylene glycol) chain terminated by a maleimide reactive group for the coupling of Fab' fragments. The procedure for the coupling of Fab' fragments at the surface of sterically stabilized liposomes and the removal of uncoupled fragments of antibodies is described. In vitro binding studies of sterically stabilized immunoliposomes to cell lines expressing different surface levels of the mouse or human HLA-DR determinant of MHC-II demonstrate that these liposomes are very specific. When compared with conventional liposomes, the subcutaneous administration in the upper back, below the neck, of mice of anti-HLA-DR immunoliposomes resulted in a 2.9 and 1.6 times greater accumulation in the cervical and brachial lymph nodes, respectively. The use of sterically stabilized immunoliposomes increases 2 to 4.6 times the concentration of liposomes in all tissues, with a peak accumulation at 240 h in brachial, inguinal, and popliteal lymph nodes and at 360 h or greater in cervical lymph nodes. A single bolus injection of indinavir given subcutaneously to mice results in no significant drug levels in lymphoid organs. Most of the injected drug accumulates in the liver and is totally cleared within 24 h postadministration. In contrast, sterically stabilized immunoliposomes are very efficient in delivering high concentrations of indinavir to lymphoid tissues for at least 15 days postinjection. The drug accumulation in all tissues leads to a 21- to 126-fold increased accumulation when compared with the free agent. Anti-HLA-DR immunoliposomes containing indinavir are as efficient as the free agent in inhibiting HIV-1 replication in PM1 cells that express high levels of cell surface HLA-DR. Sterically stabilized anti-HLA-DR immunoliposomes mostly accumulate in the cortex in which follicles (B cells and FDCs) are located, and in parafollicular areas in which T cells, interdigitating dendritic cells, and other accessory cells are abundant. The delivery of drugs in this area of the lymph nodes could represent a convenient strategy to inhibit more efficiently HIV-1 replication. Although the method described in this chapter is specific to the coupling of anti-HLA-DR antibodies, any antibody fragment or peptide specific for an antigen present in relatively large quantities at the surface of lymphoid cells, that is anchored to the surface of sterically stabilized liposomes with an appropriate coupling method, can be used to concentrate drugs within target tissues and improve the therapeutic effect of drugs.
"It is important to note that when constructing the most optimal in vivo purging strategy, multiple types of nanoparticles that target different cells or tissue types could be used in combination. For example, while CD4 targeting nanoparticles may be useful in systemic T-cell targeting, unmodified liposomes have been documented to target lymphoid tissue due to their size and drainage into lymphatic vessels , , . This type of combinatorial approach along with the idea that both latency activators and protease inhibitors will be delivered by the same vehicle may be used to enhance HIV latency purging strategies in vivo. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy is currently only capable of controlling HIV replication rather than completely eradicating virus from patients. This is due in part to the establishment of a latent virus reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells, which persists even in the presence of HAART. It is thought that forced activation of latently infected cells could induce virus production, allowing targeting of the cell by the immune response. A variety of molecules are able to stimulate HIV from latency. However no tested purging strategy has proven capable of eliminating the infection completely or preventing viral rebound if therapy is stopped. Hence novel latency activation approaches are required. Nanoparticles can offer several advantages over more traditional drug delivery methods, including improved drug solubility, stability, and the ability to simultaneously target multiple different molecules to particular cell or tissue types. Here we describe the development of a novel lipid nanoparticle with the protein kinase C activator bryostatin-2 incorporated (LNP-Bry). These particles can target and activate primary human CD4+ T-cells and stimulate latent virus production from human T-cell lines in vitro and from latently infected cells in a humanized mouse model ex vivo. This activation was synergistically enhanced by the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate. Furthermore, LNP-Bry can also be loaded with the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (LNP-Bry-Nel), producing a particle capable of both activating latent virus and inhibiting viral spread. Taken together these data demonstrate the ability of nanotechnological approaches to provide improved methods for activating latent HIV and provide key proof-of-principle experiments showing how novel delivery systems may enhance future HIV therapy.
PLoS ONE 04/2011; 6(4):e18270. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0018270 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"05 ) within 30 min and were able to retain in these organs for a prolonged period . This may be attributed to the natural passive uptake of the colloidal carriers by liver cells ( Desormeaux and Bergeron 2005 ) . . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of present research study was to evaluate the potential of lipid nanoparticles for active delivery of an antiretroviral drug to lymphatic tissues. Stavudine entrapped drug loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared and characterized for a variety of physicochemical parameters such as appearance, particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. The targeting potential of the prepared nanoparticles was investigated by carrying out ex vivo cellular uptake studies in macrophages which depicted several times enhanced uptake as compared to pure drug solution. Further, the lymphatic drug levels and organ distribution studies demonstrated efficiency of the developed nanoparticles for prolonged residence in spleenic tissues. Thus it was concluded that stavudine entrapped lipid carriers can be exploited for effective and targeted delivery to cellular and anatomical HIV reservoirs and may ultimately increase the therapeutic safety and reduce side effects.
Vanessa K Berner, Sally A duPre, Doug Redelman, Kenneth W Hunter
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