Apico-basal inhomogeneity in distribution of ion channels in canine and human ventricular myocardium.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare the apico-basal distribution of ion currents and the underlying ion channel proteins in canine and human ventricular myocardium.
Ion currents and action potentials were recorded in canine cardiomyocytes, isolated from both apical and basal regions of the heart, using whole-cell voltage clamp techniques. Density of channel proteins in canine and human ventricular myocardium was determined by Western blotting.
Action potential duration was shorter and the magnitude of phase-1 repolarization was significantly higher in apical than basal canine myocytes. No differences were observed in other parameters of the action potential or cell capacitance. Amplitude of the transient outward K(+) current (29.6+/-5.7 versus 16.5+/-4.4 pA/pF at +65 mV) and the slow component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current (5.61+/-0.43 versus 2.14+/-0.18 pA/pF at +50 mV) were significantly larger in apical than in basal myocytes. Densities of the inward rectifier K(+) current, rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current, and L-type Ca(2+) current were similar in myocytes of apical and basal origin. Apico-basal differences were found in the expression of only those channel proteins which are involved in mediation of the transient outward K(+) current and the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current: expression of Kv1.4, KChIP2, KvLQT1 and MinK was significantly higher in apical than in basal myocardium in both canine and human hearts.
The results suggest that marked apico-basal electrical inhomogeneity exists in the canine-and probably in the human-ventricular myocardium, which may result in increased dispersion, and therefore, cannot be ignored when interpreting ECG recordings, pathological alterations, or drug effects.
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ABSTRACT: Adrenergic activation of L-type Ca(2+) and various K(+) currents is a crucial mechanism of cardiac adaptation; however, it may carry a substantial proarrhythmic risk as well. The aim of the present work was to study the timing of activation of Ca(2+) and K(+) currents in isolated canine ventricular cells in response to exposure to isoproterenol (ISO). Whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique in either conventional voltage clamp or action potential voltage clamp modes were used to monitor I Ca, I Ks, and I Kr, while action potentials were recorded using sharp microelectrodes. ISO (10 nM) elevated the plateau potential and shortened action potential duration (APD) in subepicardial and mid-myocardial cells, which effects were associated with multifold enhancement of I Ca and I Ks and moderate stimulation of I Kr. The ISO-induced plateau shift and I Ca increase developed faster than the shortening of APD and stimulation of I Ks and I Kr. Blockade of β1-adrenoceptors (using 300 nM CGP-20712A) converted the ISO-induced shortening of APD to lengthening, decreased its latency, and reduced the plateau shift. In contrast, blockade of β2-adrenoceptors (by 50 nM ICI 118,551) augmented the APD-shortening effect and increased the latency of plateau shift without altering its magnitude. All effects of ISO were prevented by simultaneous blockade of both receptor types. Inhibition of phosphodiesterases decreased the differences observed in the turn on of the ISO-induced plateau shift and APD shortening. ISO-induced activation of I Ca is turned on faster than the stimulation of I Ks and I Kr in canine ventricular cells due to the involvement of different adrenergic pathways and compartmentalization.Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reduced repolarization reserve and increased transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) are known risk factors for Torsade de Pointes development, but less is known about the role of apex-to-base (apicobasal) repolarization in arrhythmogenesis. Three needles were inserted in rabbit left ventricle to record unipolar electrograms from endocardium to epicardium and base to apex. Total repolarization interval (TRI) and peak-to-end repolarization interval (Tp) were assessed after quinidine (n = 6) and D,L-sotalol (n = 6) perfusion in combination with the IKs inhibitor chromanol 293B. About 30 µM D,L-sotalol increased TRI and Tp more at the base (TRI + 40 ± 4 %; Tp +89 ± 11 %) relative to the apex (TRI + 28 ± 3 %, Tp + 30 ± 8 %). Similar results were obtained with quinidine: TRI and Tp increased more at the base compared to the apex. No significant differences were recorded from the endocardium to the epicardium. Our results show that combined IKr + IKs block prolonged TRI and Tp significantly more at the ventricular base than at the apex, in the absence of transmural dispersion of refractoriness. Regional changes in TRI and Tp indicate the contribution of apicobasal dispersion to arrhythmogenicity compared to TDR in a rabbit heart model.Cardiovascular toxicology 04/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been believed for a long time to be a selective inhibitor of voltage-gated fast Na(+) channels in excitable tissues, including mammalian myocardium. Recently TTX has been shown to block cardiac L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa,L). Furthermore, this inhibition was ascribed to binding of TTX to the outer pore of the Ca(2+) channel, contributing to the selectivity filter region. In this study the TTX-sensitivity of Cav1.2 channels, expressed in HEK cells, was tested using the whole cell version of the patch clamp technique and compared to the TTX-sensitivity of native canine ICa,L. Cav1.2 channels mediate Ca(2+) current in ventricular myocardium of various mammalian species. Surprisingly, TTX failed to inhibit Cav1.2 current up to the concentration of 100 μM - in contrast to ICa,L - in spite of the fact that the kinetic properties of the ICa,L and Cav1.2 currents were similar. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Present results may question the suitability of a single pore-forming channel subunit, expressed in a transfection system, for electrophysiological or pharmacological studies.Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 12/2013; 64(6):807-10. · 2.48 Impact Factor