Apico-basal inhomogeneity in distribution of ion channels in canine and human ventricular myocardium.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare the apico-basal distribution of ion currents and the underlying ion channel proteins in canine and human ventricular myocardium.
Ion currents and action potentials were recorded in canine cardiomyocytes, isolated from both apical and basal regions of the heart, using whole-cell voltage clamp techniques. Density of channel proteins in canine and human ventricular myocardium was determined by Western blotting.
Action potential duration was shorter and the magnitude of phase-1 repolarization was significantly higher in apical than basal canine myocytes. No differences were observed in other parameters of the action potential or cell capacitance. Amplitude of the transient outward K(+) current (29.6+/-5.7 versus 16.5+/-4.4 pA/pF at +65 mV) and the slow component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current (5.61+/-0.43 versus 2.14+/-0.18 pA/pF at +50 mV) were significantly larger in apical than in basal myocytes. Densities of the inward rectifier K(+) current, rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current, and L-type Ca(2+) current were similar in myocytes of apical and basal origin. Apico-basal differences were found in the expression of only those channel proteins which are involved in mediation of the transient outward K(+) current and the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current: expression of Kv1.4, KChIP2, KvLQT1 and MinK was significantly higher in apical than in basal myocardium in both canine and human hearts.
The results suggest that marked apico-basal electrical inhomogeneity exists in the canine-and probably in the human-ventricular myocardium, which may result in increased dispersion, and therefore, cannot be ignored when interpreting ECG recordings, pathological alterations, or drug effects.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate electrical and mechanical properties of single myocytes isolated from different regions of the left ventricle in control and hypertrophied hearts. Mild cardiac hypertrophy was induced in guinea-pigs by aortic constriction. Myocytes were isolated from basal sub-endocardial, basal mid-myocardial and apical sub-epicardial layers of the left ventricle. Action potentials were stimulated at 1 Hz. Membrane currents were measured using the switch-clamp technique. Cell shortening was measured using a photodiode array. In control hearts mean action potential duration (APD) was longer in sub-endocardial myocytes than in sub-epicardial myocytes. In hypertrophy APD was prolonged in sub-epicardial and mid-myocardial myocytes and unchanged in sub-endocardial myocytes (APD90 ms, control: sub-endocardial 273 +/- 12, mid-myocardial 254 +/- 14, sub-epicardial 229 +/- 9; hypertrophy: sub-endocardial 259 +/- 13, mid-myocardial 291 +/- 9, sub-epicardial 268 +/- 11, P < 0.005, ANOVA). There was no significant regional difference in APD in hypertrophied hearts. In control hearts L-type calcium current (ICa) was similar in all regions. In hypertrophy ICa was increased in sub-epicardial and mid-myocardial myocytes and reduced in sub-endocardial myocytes. Calcium-activated tail currents were not regionally different in control or hypertrophied hearts, but were increased in hypertrophy. Changes in electrical and mechanical properties associated with hypertrophy are not homogeneous throughout the left ventricle. The difference in APD between sub-endocardial and sub-epicardial myocytes seen in control hearts is lost in hypertrophy. These results may favour the propagation of re-entry arrhythmias in hypertrophied hearts.Cardiovascular Research 08/1997; 35(2):315-23. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Ca(2+)-independent portion of transient outward K(+) current (I(to)) exhibits a transmural gradient in ventricle. To investigate control mechanisms for this gradient, we studied canine epicardial and endocardial ventricular myocytes with use of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. I(to) was larger in amplitude, had a more negative voltage threshold for activation, and had a more negative midpoint of inactivation in epicardium. Recovery from inactivation was >10-fold slower in endocardium. Incubation of epicardial myocytes with angiotensin II for 2 to 52 hours altered I(to) to resemble unincubated endocardium and reduced the amplitude of the phase 1 notch of the action potential. In contrast, incubation of endocardial myocytes with losartan for 2 to 52 hours altered I(to) to resemble unincubated epicardium and induced a phase 1 notch in the action potential. With RNase protection assays, we determined that incubations with angiotensin II or losartan did not alter mRNA levels for either Kv4.3 or Kv1.4; thus, a change in the alpha subunit for I(to) is unlikely to be responsible. To test whether posttranslational modification produced the effects of angiotensin II, we coexpressed Kv4.3 and the angiotensin II type 1a receptor in Xenopus oocytes. Incubation with angiotensin II increased the time constant for recovery from inactivation of the expressed current by 2-fold with an incubation time constant of 3.7 hours. No effect on activation or inactivation voltage dependence was observed. These results demonstrate that the properties of I(to) in endocardium and epicardium are plastic and likely under the tonic-differing influence of the renin-angiotensin system.Circulation Research 05/2000; 86(10):1062-8. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In large mammals and humans, the contribution of IKs to ventricular repolarization is still incompletely understood. In vivo and cellular electrophysiological experiments were conducted to study IKs in canine ventricular repolarization. In conscious dogs, administration of the selective IKs blocker HMR 1556 (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg PO) caused substantial dose-dependent QT prolongations with broad-based T waves. In isolated ventricular myocytes under baseline conditions, however, IKs block (chromanols HMR 1556 and 293B) did not significantly prolong action potential duration (APD) at fast or slow steady-state pacing rates. This was because of the limited activation of IKs in the voltage and time domains of the AP, although at seconds-long depolarizations, the current was substantial. Isoproterenol increased and accelerated IKs activation to promote APD95 shortening. This shortening was importantly reversed by HMR 1556 and 293B. Quantitatively similar effects were obtained in ventricular-tissue preparations. Finally, when cellular repolarization was impaired by IKr block, IKs block exaggerated repolarization instability with further prolongation of APD. Ventricular repolarization in conscious dogs is importantly dependent on IKs. IKs function becomes prominent during beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation, when it promotes AP shortening by increased activation, and during IKr block, when it limits repolarization instability by time-dependent activation. Unstimulated IKs does not contribute to cellular APD at baseline. These data highlight the importance of the synergism between an intact basal IKs and the sympathetic nervous system in vivo.Circulation 07/2003; 107(21):2753-60. · 15.20 Impact Factor