Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), commonly diagnosed in males, is often a "hidden disorder" in girls and women. This lack of recognition can be partially explained because the symptoms are less overt in females. In addition, coexisting disorders in females are often different from those seen in males who have ADHD. Higher rates of anxiety, mood, and substance disorders, as well as learning disabilities, often complicate the picture. Thus, clinicians are challenged with disentangling the symptoms of ADHD from symptoms of these coexisting conditions. In addition, fluctuating hormone levels may affect ADHD symptoms and treatment in females. Only with gender-sensitive diagnosis and treatment will the public health concern posed by the underdiagnosis of ADHD in females be addressed. This case report of a 23-year-old female illustrates the specific difficulties with the gender-sensitive aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in females.
"The importance of gender is particularly interesting and might point to differential sex-related etiology in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Furthermore, hyperactivity is frequently a " hidden disorder " in girls . It is well "
"The importance of gender is particularly interesting and might point to differential sex-related etiology in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Furthermore, hyperactivity is frequently a “hidden disorder” in girls . It is well established that the prevalence of ADHD and HD is higher in boys [11, 14]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether age of First diagnosis, gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment modalities (pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy) at Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) moderate the risk of Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) utilization in patients diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS.
Data were derived from the Madrid Psychiatric Cumulative Register Study. The target population comprised 32,183 patients who had 3 or more visits at CAMHS. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess survival data. A series of logistic regression analyses were performed to study the role of age of diagnosis, gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment modalities.
7.1% of patients presented with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS. Compared to preschool children, children and adolescents first diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS were more likely to use AMHS. Female gender and comorbidity with affective disorders, schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders increased the risk of use of AMHS. Pharmacological or combined treatment of hyperkinetic disorder diagnosed at CAMHS was associated with increased risk of use at AMHS.
Older age of first diagnosis, female gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and pharmacological treatment at CAMHS are markers of risk for the transition from CAMHS to AMHS in patients with hyperkinetic disorder diagnosed at CAMHS.
The Scientific World Journal 04/2012; 2012(10):451205. DOI:10.1100/2012/451205 · 1.73 Impact Factor
"Women who seek an evaluation for ADHD from community practitioners often do not receive this diagnosis because their history does not fit the stereotypic ADHD patterns of young, hyperactive boys (Quinn, 2008). Women with ADHD not only have higher rates of adolescent pregnancy and substance abuse than non-ADHD mothers (Arnold, 1996; Ninowski , Mash, & Benzies, 2007), but they are also more likely to provide inattentive, inconsistent, or impulsive care giving (Banks, Ninowski, Mash, & Semple, 2008; Chronis-Tuscano et al., 2008; Psychogiou, Daley, Thompson, & Sonuga-Barke, 2008; Quinn, 2005). Importantly, ethnic diversity in the aforementioned research is limited. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a lifespan developmental syndrome that is associated with significant impairments. Although there is strong evidence that ADHD persists into adulthood for a majority of individuals, adults with ADHD are identified and treated at much lower rates than are children with ADHD. Considering the heritability of ADHD, there is an increased likelihood that at least one parent of a child with ADHD will also have ADHD, or exhibit prominent features of the disorder. Parental ADHD also affects help-seeking behavior regarding treatment, as well as follow through on treatment recommendations. There is a paucity of data on parental ADHD and help-seeking among underserved populations. The goal of this paper is to review parental ADHD among underserved groups in terms of factors affecting help-seeking behavior and readiness to engage in care. A model for conceptualizing and addressing issues of readiness for change for parents with ADHD is also proposed.
Issues in Mental Health Nursing 12/2010; 31(12):793-803. DOI:10.3109/01612840.2010.520406
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