A novel method for making "tissue" microarrays from small numbers of suspension cells.
ABSTRACT Tissue microarrays (TMAs) are a highly efficient method for large-scale protein expression studies. To date most TMAs have been constructed using paraffin-embedded specimens. The authors developed a method that allows construction of TMAs from small numbers of cells in suspension. Spun pellets of 1x10 to 1x10 cells are directly processed and embedded in paraffin in an Eppendorf tube. Cylindrical cores of 0.6 mm are taken from these tubes and embedded in a recipient paraffin block to create a TMA. This relatively simple but versatile method enables very small numbers of cells in suspension to be analyzed using the TMA technology and allows for the study of hematolymphoid and related disorders of the blood and bone marrow for which solid tissue samples cannot be readily obtained. With the increasing trend toward obtaining small samples for screening and diagnostic purposes, this method provides a means to manipulate small volume samples for high-throughput immunohistochemical analysis. This method is also amenable for use for cultured cells.
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ABSTRACT: Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a powerful method for undertaking large-scale tissue-based biomarker studies. While TMAs offer several advantages, there are a number of issues specific to their use which need to be considered when employing this method. Given the investment in TMA-based research, guidance on design and execution of experiments will be of benefit and should help researchers new to TMA-based studies to avoid known pitfalls. Furthermore, a consensus on quality standards for TMA-based experiments should improve the robustness and reproducibility of studies, thereby increasing the likelihood of identifying clinically useful biomarkers. In order to address these issues, the National Cancer Research Institute Biomarker and Imaging Clinical Studies Group organized a 1-day TMA workshop held in Nottingham in May 2012. The document herein summarizes the conclusions from the workshop. It includes guidance and considerations on all aspects of TMA-based research, including the pre-analytical stages of experimental design, the analytical stages of data acquisition, and the postanalytical stages of data analysis. A checklist is presented which can be used both for planning a TMA experiment and interpreting the results of such an experiment. For studies of cancer biomarkers, this checklist could be used as a supplement to the REMARK guidelines.Histopathology 05/2013; 62(6):827-839. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our knowledge of tumor immunology has resulted in multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer. However, a gap between research of new tumors markers and development of immunotherapy has been established and very few markers exist that can be used for treatment. The challenge is now to discover new targets for active and passive immunotherapy. This review aims at describing recent advances in biomarkers and tumor antigen discovery in terms of antigen nature and localization, and is highlighting the most recent approaches used for their discovery including "omics" technology.Cancers. 12/2011; 3(2):2554-96.