Short-term Effects of Intensive Periodontal Therapy on Serum Inflammatory Markers and Cholesterol

Department of Periodontology and Eastman Clinical Investigation Center, Eastman Dental Institute and Hospital, University College London, 256 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD, UK.
Journal of Dental Research (Impact Factor: 4.14). 04/2005; 84(3):269-73. DOI: 10.1177/154405910508400312
Source: PubMed


Severe periodontitis has been associated with increased systemic inflammation. In a three-arm preliminary randomized trial, we investigated the impact of standard (SPT) and intensive periodontal therapy (IPT) on serum inflammatory markers and cholesterol levels. Medical and periodontal parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were evaluated in 65 systemically healthy subjects suffering from severe generalized periodontitis. Two months after treatment, both SPT and IPT resulted in significant reductions in serum CRP compared with the untreated control (0.5 +/- 0.2 mg/L for SPT, P = 0.030 and 0.8 +/- 0.2 mg/L for IPT, P = 0.001). Similar results were observed for IL-6. Changes in inflammation were independent of age, gender, body mass index, and ethnicity, but a significant interaction between cigarette smoking and treatment regimen was found. The IPT group also showed a decrease in total and LDL cholesterol after 2 months. Analysis of these data indicates that periodontitis causes moderate systemic inflammation in systemically healthy subjects.

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    • "Indeed, periodontitis has been shown to be associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) in subjects without cardiovascular risk factors as well as hypertensive patients through a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability [1]. Emerging evidence confirms that periodontal infections may contribute significantly to systemic inflammation, with the observation of increased numbers of peripheral blood leukocytes [2] and elevated biomarkers of systemic inflammation such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) [3] [4]. Periodontal treatment could significantly reduce the levels of these biomarkers [5] [6], whereas the effect of pharmacological treatment on the incidence of cardiovascular events is still debated [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is the initial step in the development of atherosclerosis, leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been suggested that periodontal disease (PD) could be associated to pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, since it is able to trigger a host response with systemic inflammation. Although a number of epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis could be associated with ED, it is still unclear whether periodontal treatment could improve ED and therefore cardiovascular outcomes. In this narrative review we analysed the literature in the databases of Medline under ''endothelial function OR dysfunction OR vasodilatation'', AND ''periodontal disease" OR periodontal treatment" AND "cardiovascular disease" OR atherosclerosis AND "endothelial biomarker". Research articles, systematic reviews and clinical trials were screened. ED could be related to periodontitis as well as to CVD. Periodontal treatment reduces the risk of teeth loss and may improve ED and the risk of CVD. Since controversial results exist, there is an urgent need for well-designed clinical trials to find and validate novel biomarkers of endothelial function, such as circulating endothelial progenitors, which may be crucial for further investigation of the association of PD with endothelial function and CVD.
    Current Vascular Pharmacology 08/2015; 13(6). DOI:10.2174/1570161113666150818110653 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Recent evidence shows that patients with periodontitis present with increased systemic inflammation, as indicated by raised serum levels of various inflammatory markers when compared with those in unaffected control populations [4]. Further, the association between periodontal disease and diabetes has also been explored in several studies, and it is widely accepted that more prevalent and severe periodontal disease is observed in persons with diabetes than in nondiabetic persons. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of scaling and root planing (SRP) on the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-CP) or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (NDM-CP). Methods: Forty-eight human participants were divided into two groups: an experimental (T2DM-CP) group (group I, n=24) comprising chronic periodontitis patients with random blood sugar ≥200 mg/dL and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and control (NDM-CP) group (group II, n=24) of those with chronic periodontitis and random blood sugar <200 without T2DM for the study. All subjects underwent nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) including complete SRP and subgingival debridement. Periodontal health parameters, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), GCF volume (GCF vol), GCF-CRP, random blood glucose (RBS), glycated hemoglobin, and systemic inflammatory markers, serum CRP, total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil count (Neutr) and lymphocyte count (Lymph), were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after SRP. Results: NSPT resulted in statistically significant improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum as well as GCF of both groups I and II. The mean improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum and GCF was greater in group I than group II after NSPT. There was nonsignificant increase in GCF-CRP, TLC, Lymph, and RBS, and a significant increase in Neutr and Serum CRP in group II at 1 month. The Serum CRP level of 20 out of 24 group II patients had also increased at 1 month. Conclusions: The CRP levels in both GCF and serum were higher in T2DM-CP patients than in NDM-CP patients. Although there was a significant improvement in both the groups, greater improvement was observed in both GCF and serum samples of T2DM-CP patients.
    Journal of periodontal & implant science 08/2014; 44(4):158-68. DOI:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.4.158 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    • "Reports in the literature have been contradictory [30,37,38]. It has been noted that the reduction in serum hs-CRP was greater in treatment regimens that combine systemic or local antibiotics with standard periodontal treatment [37]. Since no antibiotics were used in this study, it may explain the lack of an association. "
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    ABSTRACT: 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe CP were randomly distributed to groups receiving either NSPT or OHI. Periodontal parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were evaluated at baseline, 2- and 3-months intervals. 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe CP were randomly distributed to groups receiving either NSPT or OHI. Periodontal parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were evaluated at baseline, 2- and 3-months intervals. 15 subjects from NSPT group and 17 from OHI group completed the study. The difference in plaque index (PI) between NSPT and OHI groups were significant at 2 months recall (p = 0.013). There was no significant difference between NSPT and OHI group for all other clinical periodontal parameters, HbA1c and CRP levels. At 3 months post-therapy, periodontal parameters improved significantly in both groups with sites with probing pocket depth (PPD) < 4 mm reported as 98 ± 1.8% in NSPT group and 92 ± 14.9% in OHI group. Mean PPD and mean probing attachment loss (PAL) within the NSPT group reduced significantly from baseline (2.56 ± 0.57 mm, 3.35 ± 0.83 mm) to final visit (1.94 ± 0.26 mm, 2.92 ± 0.72 mm) (p = 0.003, p < 0.001). For OHI group, improvements in mean PPD and mean PAL were also seen from baseline (2.29 ± 0.69 mm, 2.79 ± 0.96 mm) to final visit (2.09 ± 0.72 mm, 2.62 ± 0.97 mm) (p < 0.001 for both). Similarly, HbA1c levels decreased in both groups with NSPT group recording statistically significant reduction (p = 0.038). Participants who demonstrated ≥ 50% reduction in PPD showed significant reductions of HbA1c and hs-CRP levels (p = 0.004 and p = 0.012). NSPT significantly reduced PI at 2 months post-therapy as compared to OHI. Both NSPT and OHI demonstrated improvements in other clinical parameters as well as HbA1c and CRP levels. Trial registration NCT01951547.
    BMC Oral Health 06/2014; 14(1):79. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-14-79 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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