Physical activity and the risk of Parkinson disease

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 03/2005; 64(4):664-9. DOI: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000151960.28687.93
Source: PubMed


To investigate whether greater physical activity is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD).
The authors prospectively followed 48,574 men and 77,254 women who provided information on physical activity in 1986 or in early adulthood. During the follow-up, a total of 252 (male) and 135 (female) incident PD cases were identified.
In men, greater baseline physical activity was associated with a lower PD risk; compared with the lowest quintile, the multivariate relative risk (RR) of PD for the highest quintile was 0.7 (95% CI 0.5 to 1.1; p value, test for trend = 0.007), and the inverse association was still present after excluding the first 10 years of follow-up (RR = 0.5; p value, test for trend = 0.02). Further, strenuous exercise in early adult life was also inversely related to PD risk in men: compared with men who regularly exercised < or =2 months/year, those with > or =10 months of strenuous exercise had a 60% lower PD risk (RR = 0.4; p value, test for trend = 0.005). In women, physical activity assessed at baseline was not related to PD risk, whereas strenuous exercise in early adulthood tended to be inversely related to PD risk later in life (highest vs lowest categories, RR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.4; p value, test for trend = 0.06).
This study suggests either that higher levels of physical activity may lower the risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in men or that men predisposed to PD tend to avoid strenuous physical activity in their early adult years.

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    • "It is only in the last two decades that epidemiological studies have suggested that a lifetime of physical activity may provide protection from a wide range of neurological disorders, including PD [19], Alzheimer's disease (AD) [20], and cognitive impairment associated with aging [21]. For example, a study by Chen and colleagues demonstrated that maintaining strenuous levels of physical activity in young adulthood was associated with a reduced risk of acquiring PD in later life [22]. One potential mechanism by which exercise may reduce an individual's risk for common neurodegenerative diseases, or age-related cognitive decline is through enhanced brain connectivity, with concomitant increased reserve and resilience to agerelated synaptic deterioration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Animal studies have been instrumental in providing evidence for exercise-induced neuroplasticity of corticostriatal circuits that are profoundly affected in Parkinson’s disease. Exercise has been implicated in modulating dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission, altering synaptogenesis, and increasing cerebral blood flow. In addition, recent evidence supports that the type of exercise may have regional effects on brain circuitry, with skilled exercise differentially affecting frontal-striatal related circuits to a greater degree than pure aerobic exercise. Neuroplasticity in models of dopamine depletion will be reviewed with a focus on the influence of exercise on the dorsal lateral striatum and prefrontal related circuitry underlying motor and cognitive impairment in PD. Although clearly more research is needed to address major gaps in our knowledge, we hypothesize that the potential effects of exercise on inducing neuroplasticity in a circuit specific manner may occur through synergistic mechanisms that include the coupling of an increasing neuronal metabolic demand and increased blood flow. Elucidation of these mechanisms may provide important new targets for facilitating brain repair and modifying the course of disease in PD.
    10/2015; 1(1):25-35. DOI:10.3233/BPL-150021
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    • "In 1999, van Praag et al. showed the increase of neurogenesis following exercise in the adult brain rats [5]. Since then, other scientists have replicated this finding and clinicians have tried to assess and quantify the effect of exercise on a variety of neurological disorders [6] [7]. Multiple clinical studies demonstrated the benefit of exercise on motor symptoms of PD by applying different exercise models such as treadmill training [8] [9] [10], resistance training [11] [12] [13], biking [14], Tai Chi [15] [16], tango [17] [18], and boxing [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Novel rehabilitation strategies have demonstrated potential benefits for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objective. To compare the effects of Lee Silverman Voice Therapy BIG (LSVT BIG therapy) versus a general exercise program (combined treadmill plus seated trunk and limb exercises) on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Methods. Eleven patients with early-mid stage PD participated in the prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Both groups received 16 one-hour supervised training sessions over 4 weeks. Outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Five patients performed general exercise and six patients performed LSVT BIG therapy. Post-intervention evaluations were conducted at weeks 4, 12 and 24. Results. The combined cohort made improvements at all follow-up evaluations with statistical significance for UPDRS total and motor, BDI, and MFIS (p<0.05). Conclusion. This study demonstrated positive effects of general exercise and LSVT BIG therapy on motor and non-motor symptoms of patients with PD. Our results suggest that general exercise may be as effective as LSVT BIG therapy on symptoms of PD for patients not able to readily access outpatient LSVT BIG therapy.
    Parkinson's Disease 02/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/586378 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    • "There is a need for new therapies that can reduce the functional and cognitive declines seen with advancing disease, and slow disease progression. Epidemiological studies have supported a link between moderate to vigorous exercise habits in midlife and the reduced risk of later developing PD [3] [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the benefits of medications and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), these treatments are not without complications and neuroprotective strategies are still lacking. Therefore, there is a need for effective alternative approaches to treat motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. During the last decade, several studies have investigated endurance exercise training as a potential treatment for individuals with PD. Objective: This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. Methods: First, we performed a systematic review of the literature on the effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor signs of parkinsonism, functional outcomes including gait, balance and mobility, depression and fatigue, quality of life and perceived patient improvement, cardiorespiratory function, neurophysiological measures, and motor control measures in PD. Second we performed a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Then, we focused on several important factors to consider when prescribing endurance exercise training in PD such as intensity, duration, frequency, specificity and type of exercise. In addition, we identified current knowledge gaps regarding endurance exercise training in PD and made suggestions for future research. Results: A total of eight randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. This systematic review synthesizes evidence that endurance exercise training at a sufficiently high level enhances cardiorespiratory capacity and endurance by improving VO2 max and gait in moderately to mildly affected individuals with PD. However, there is not yet a proven effect of endurance exercise training on specific features of PD such as motor signs of parkinsonism. Conclusion: Endurance exercise training improves physical conditioning in PD patients; however, to date, there is insufficient evidence to include endurance exercise training as a specific treatment for PD. There is a need for well-designed large-scale randomized controlled trials to confirm benefits and safety of endurance exercise training in PD and to explore potential benefits on the motor and non-motor signs of PD.
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease 11/2014; 5(1). DOI:10.3233/JPD-140425 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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