Influenza vaccination lowers, but does not eliminate, the risk of influenza. Making a reliable, rapid clinical diagnosis is essential to appropriate patient management that may be especially important during shortages of antiviral agents caused by high demand.
To systematically review the precision and accuracy of symptoms and signs of influenza. A secondary objective was to review the operating characteristics of rapid diagnostic tests for influenza (results available in <30 min).
Structured search strategy using MEDLINE (January 1966-September 2004) and subsequent searches of bibliographies of retrieved articles to identify articles describing primary studies dealing with the diagnosis of influenza based on clinical signs and symptoms. The MEDLINE search used the Medical Subject Headings EXP influenza or EXP influenza A virus or EXP influenza A virus human or EXP influenza B virus and the Medical Subject Headings or terms EXP sensitivity and specificity or EXP medical history taking or EXP physical examination or EXP reproducibility of results or EXP observer variation or symptoms.mp or clinical signs.mp or sensitivity.mp or specificity.mp.
Of 915 identified articles on clinical assessment of influenza-related illness, 17 contained data on the operating characteristics of symptoms and signs using an independent criterion standard. Of these, 11 were eliminated based on 4 inclusion criteria and availability of nonduplicative primary data.
Two authors independently reviewed and abstracted data for estimating the likelihood ratios (LRs) of clinical diagnostic findings. Differences were resolved by discussion and consensus.
No symptom or sign had a summary LR greater than 2 in studies that enrolled patients without regard to age. For decreasing the likelihood of influenza, the absence of fever (LR, 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.66), cough (LR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31-0.57), or nasal congestion (LR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.42-0.59) were the only findings that had summary LRs less than 0.5. In studies limited to patients aged 60 years or older, the combination of fever, cough, and acute onset (LR, 5.4; 95% CI, 3.8-7.7), fever and cough (LR, 5.0; 95% CI, 3.5-6.9), fever alone (LR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.8-5.0), malaise (LR, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.2-3.1), and chills (LR, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.0-3.2) increased the likelihood of influenza to the greatest degree. The presence of sneezing among older patients made influenza less likely (LR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.92).
Clinical findings identify patients with influenza-like illness but are not particularly useful for confirming or excluding the diagnosis of influenza. Clinicians should use timely epidemiologic data to ascertain if influenza is circulating in their communities, then either treat patients with influenza-like illness empirically or obtain a rapid influenza test to assist with management decisions.
"The decreased sensitivity of ILI is likely related to the patient population, which included several patient groups that may not be able to mount an appropriate immune response or fever (eg, immunosuppressed or elderly). This is consistent with previous findings that the sensitivity of symptoms such as cough and fever for diagnosing influenza is decreased in elderly patients (30%) compared to the larger population (64%)   . Thus, in those recommended to receive antiviral treatment in whom diagnosis is most essential, the classic symptoms of ILI are less reliable. "
"The primary outcome is the number of laboratory-confirmed viral URTIs per child over the winter months. Because of the wide variety of respiratory viruses and URTI illness presentations, signs and symptoms of viral URTI are non-specific and may not be reliably measured by parental report [95,96]. Therefore, in addition to parents of enrolled children completing a symptom checklist with each URTI (see Additional file 3: Symptom Checklist), parents are asked to obtain a nasal swab from their child. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D levels are alarmingly low (<75 nmol/L) in 65-70% of North American children older than 1 year. An increased risk of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), asthma-related hospitalizations and use of anti-inflammatory medication have all been linked with low vitamin D. No study has determined whether wintertime vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk of URTI and asthma exacerbations, two of the most common and costly illnesses of early childhood. The objectives of this study are: 1) to compare the effect of 'high dose' (2000 IU/day) vs. 'standard dose' (400 IU/day) vitamin D supplementation in achieving reductions in laboratory confirmed URTI and asthma exacerbations during the winter in preschool-aged Canadian children; and 2) to assess the effect of 'high dose' vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D serum levels and specific viruses that cause URTI.Methods/design: This study is a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Over 3 successive winters we will recruit 750 healthy children 1-5 years of age. Participating physicians are part of a primary healthcare research network called TARGet Kids! Children will be randomized to the 'standard dose' or 'high dose' oral supplemental vitamin D for a minimum of 4 months (200 children per group). Parents will obtain a nasal swab from their child with each URTI, report the number of asthma exacerbations and complete symptom checklists. Unscheduled physician visits for URTIs and asthma exacerbations will be recorded. By May, a blood sample will be drawn to determine vitamin D serum levels. The primary analysis will be a comparison of URTI rate between study groups using a Poisson regression model. Secondary analyses will compare vitamin D serum levels, asthma exacerbations and the frequency of specific viral agents between groups.
Identifying whether vitamin D supplementation of preschoolers can reduce wintertime viral URTIs and asthma exacerbations and what dose is optimal may reduce population wide morbidity and associated health care and societal costs. This information will assist in determining practice and health policy recommendations related to vitamin D supplementation in healthy Canadian preschoolers and place Canada at the forefront of pediatric vitamin D health outcomes research.
"Nevertheless, influenza A viral infection propensity is attributed to frequent antigenic shifts and drifts as well as possessing a capacity to cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics  . Prompt and appropriate diagnosis and therapy affect individual patients as well as whole society, because local outbreaks may be detected and control measures can be initiated  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection - post swine flu pandemic era - using rapid influenza diagnostic tests.
During two years (2010 & 2011), 1 200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections (according to World Health Organization criteria) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 2-60 months. Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test.
Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5% of the children; the majority (89.6%) were presented with lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients.
Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children. It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 09/2013; 6(9):693-8. DOI:10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60120-0 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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