In the present study, we examined the relationships between plasma concentrations of risperidone and clinical responses, extrapyramidal symptoms, plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine, or cytochrome (cyp)2D6 genotypes. In addition, we also investigated the relationships between plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) or homovanillic (HVA) acid and clinical responses to risperidone. One hundred and 36 patients (male/female: 58/78, age 37+/-13 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder and brief psychotic disorder, and who were being treated with risperidone alone, were evaluated regarding their clinical improvement and extrapyramidal symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Simpson and Angus (SAS), respectively, and plasma levels of cotinine, caffeine, MHPG and HVA were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The cyp2D6*5 and *10 alleles were identified using the polymerase chain reaction. There was a positive correlation between plasma levels of risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone (active moiety) and SAS scores, but not the PANSS. Pretreatment HVA levels in responders were higher than those in nonresponders. In addition, there was a negative correlation between changes in HVA levels and improvement in PANSS scores. There was no association between plasma levels of risperidone and plasma levels of cotinine or caffeine. Furthermore, there were no differences in the risperidone/9-hydroxyrisperidone ratio, clinical improvements and extrapyramidal symptoms among cyp2D6 genotypes. These results indicate that pretreatment HVA levels and plasma concentrations of active moiety might play a part in predicting the clinical response and occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms, respectively, when treating patients with risperidone.
"Recently, a large study of 136 schizophrenic patients who received risperidone was concluded (Kakihara et al 2005). There was a positive correlation between plasma levels of the active moiety and clinical scores during treatment , but no differences in the risperidone/9-hydroxyris- peridone ratio, clinical improvement or extrapyramidal symptoms among CYP2D6 genotypes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug oxidases play a pivotal role in the elimination of antipsychotic agents, and therefore influence the toxicity and efficacy of these drugs. Factors that affect CYP function and expression have a major impact on treatment outcomes with antipsychotic agents. In particular, aspects of CYP pharmacogenetics, and the processes of CYP induction and inhibition all influence in-vivo rates of drug elimination. Certain CYPs that mediate the oxidation of antipsychotic drugs exhibit genetic variants that may influence in-vivo activity. Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP genes have been shown to encode enzymes that have decreased drug oxidation capacity. Additionally, psychopharmacotherapy has the potential for drug-drug inhibitory interactions involving CYPs, as well as drug-mediated CYP induction. Literature evidence supports a role for CYP1A2 in the clearance of the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine; CYP1A2 is inducible by certain drugs and environmental chemicals. Recent studies have suggested that specific CYP1A2 variants possessing individual SNPs, and possibly also SNP combinations (haplotypes), in the 5'-regulatory regions may respond differently to inducing chemicals. CYP2D6 is an important catalyst of the oxidation of chlorpromazine, thioridazine, risperidone and haloperidol. Certain CYP2D6 allelic variants that encode enzymes with decreased drug oxidation capacity are more common in particular ethnic groups, which may lead to adverse effects with standard doses of psychoactive drugs. Thus, genotyping may be useful for dose optimization with certain psychoactive drugs that are substrates for CYP2D6. However, genotyping for inducible CYPs is unlikely to be sufficient to direct therapy with all antipsychotic agents. In-vivo CYP phenotyping with cocktails of drug substrates may assist at the commencement of therapy, but this approach could be complicated by pharmacokinetic interactions if applied when an antipsychotic drug regimen is ongoing.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 08/2006; 58(7):871-85. DOI:10.1211/jpp.58.7.0001 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are no objective criterion of choice between the various antipsychotic treatments available in schizophrenia today. The final aim of the pharmacogenetic study of the efficacy and the tolerance of these treatments is the individual optimization of the drug treatments. Research in progress did not make it possible yet to highlight criteria usable in daily clinical practice. The assessment of larger cohorts, genetically homogeneous and prospectively evaluated should in the future make it possible to better predict the response to the treatment in particular in term of tolerance, to highlight new therapeutic targets and to better understand the mechanism of action of the current treatments.
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