Prediction of response to risperidone treatment with respect to plasma concencentrations of risperidone, catecholamine metabolites, and polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2D6.
ABSTRACT In the present study, we examined the relationships between plasma concentrations of risperidone and clinical responses, extrapyramidal symptoms, plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine, or cytochrome (cyp)2D6 genotypes. In addition, we also investigated the relationships between plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) or homovanillic (HVA) acid and clinical responses to risperidone. One hundred and 36 patients (male/female: 58/78, age 37+/-13 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder and brief psychotic disorder, and who were being treated with risperidone alone, were evaluated regarding their clinical improvement and extrapyramidal symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Simpson and Angus (SAS), respectively, and plasma levels of cotinine, caffeine, MHPG and HVA were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The cyp2D6*5 and *10 alleles were identified using the polymerase chain reaction. There was a positive correlation between plasma levels of risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone (active moiety) and SAS scores, but not the PANSS. Pretreatment HVA levels in responders were higher than those in nonresponders. In addition, there was a negative correlation between changes in HVA levels and improvement in PANSS scores. There was no association between plasma levels of risperidone and plasma levels of cotinine or caffeine. Furthermore, there were no differences in the risperidone/9-hydroxyrisperidone ratio, clinical improvements and extrapyramidal symptoms among cyp2D6 genotypes. These results indicate that pretreatment HVA levels and plasma concentrations of active moiety might play a part in predicting the clinical response and occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms, respectively, when treating patients with risperidone.
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ABSTRACT: Risperidone is metabolized by polymorphic enzymes, and a large variability in plasma concentration and therapeutic response is observed. Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) avoids the first-pass effect, and little is known about the influence of gene polymorphisms involved in its pharmacokinetics. The influence on plasma concentrations of risperidone (RIS), its metabolite 9-hydroxy-risperidone, and on adverse effects were investigated for polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) (*3, *4, *5, *6), CYP3A (CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4 rs4646437, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A7*1C), ABCB1 (1236C>T, 2677G>T, 3435C>T), NR1/2 coding for pregnane X receptor (rs1523130, rs2472677, rs7643645), and for CYP3A activity measured by a phenotyping test. Forty-two patients with at least 4 consecutive unchanged doses of RLAI were included in a multicenter cross-sectional study. A 55% lower dose-adjusted plasma levels of RIS were observed for CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers (n = 5) as compared with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers (P < 0.007). NR1/2 polymorphism (rs7643645A>G) influenced RIS exposure with a 2.8-fold lower active moiety (P = 0.031) in GG compared with the AA genotype. This was confirmed in a second independent cohort (n = 16). Furthermore, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was positively correlated with CYP3A activity (P = 0.01), and the NR1/2 (rs2472677) polymorphism was associated with different adverse effects including prolactin plasma levels adjusted for age and sex. In conclusion, our results confirmed the influence of CYP2D6 genotype on plasma levels of RIS. This is the first report on the influence of NR1/2 polymorphisms on RLAI exposure and on drug-induced adverse effects. These results should be validated in larger cohorts.Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 04/2013; · 5.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite risperidone's proven safety and efficacy, existing pharmacogenetic knowledge could be applied to improve its clinical use. The present work aims to summarize the information about genetic polymorphisms affecting risperidone adverse reactions and efficacy during routine clinical practice. The most relevant genes involved in the metabolism of the drug (i.e., CYP2D6, CYP3A and ABCB1) appear to have the greatest potential to predict differences in plasma concentrations of the drug and its interactions, but also relate to side effects, such as neuroleptic syndrome, weight gain or polydipsia. Other genes that have been found in association at least twice with any adverse reactions including metabolic changes, extrapyramidal symptoms or prolactine increase are: 5HT2A; 5HT2C; 5HT6; DRD2; DRD3; and BDNF. Some of these genes (5HTR2A, DRD2 and DRD3), along with 5-HTTLPR and COMT, have also been reported to be related with negative clinical outcomes. However, there is not yet enough evidence to support their routine screening during clinical practice.Pharmacogenomics 01/2013; 14(2):177-194. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Adverse events, response failures and medication non-compliance are common in patients receiving medications for the treatment of mental illnesses. A systematic literature review assessed whether pharmacokinetic (PK) or pharmacodynamic (PD) responses to 26 commonly prescribed antipsychotic and antidepressant medications, including efficacy or side effects, are associated with nucleotide polymorphisms in eight commonly studied genes in psychiatric pharmacotherapy: CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, HTR2C, HTR2A, and SLC6A4. Of the 294 publications included in this review, 168 (57%) showed significant associations between gene variants and PK or PD outcomes. Other studies that showed no association often had insufficient control for confounding variables, such as co-medication use, or analysis of medications not substrates of the target gene. The strongest gene-outcome associations were for the PK profiles of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 (93% and 90%, respectively), for the PD associations between HTR2C and weight gain (57%), and for SLC6A4 and clinical response (54%), with stronger SLC6A4 response associations for specific drug classes (60-83%). The preponderance of evidence supports the validity of analyzing nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP and pharmacodynamic genes to predict the metabolism, safety, or therapeutic efficacy of psychotropic medications commonly used for the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar illness.International Review of Psychiatry 10/2013; 25(5):509-33. · 1.80 Impact Factor