Retrospective analyses of pooled data from CREST I and CREST II trials for treatment of cocaine dependence
ABSTRACT To analyze pooled data from the Cocaine Rapid Evaluation Screening Trial (CREST). Pooling data from these small pilot trials into four major drug classes permitted data exploration for treatment and covariate effects with increased sample size.
Small pilot trials were conducted to screen fifteen medications as prospective treatments for cocaine dependence. Studies included a flexible 2-week to 4-week screening/baseline period followed by an 8-week randomized treatment condition. Participants were randomized equally to one of up to three active medications or placebo.
Five Medications Development Research Units at the five academic centers of University of Cincinnati, New York University, University of Pennsylvania, University of California Los Angeles and Boston University.
The pooled data set consisted of 357 total subjects. Standardized inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed in subject selection to enhance consistency of cocaine-dependent study participants across all sites (see reports on individual trials in this supplement for details). All participants provided at least two urine samples that were positive for cocaine metabolite during a two-week period prior to being randomized.
All subjects in these trials, those randomized to placebo and active medications, received active treatment in the form of evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy.
Quantitative urine benzoylecgonine (BE), self-report of cocaine use, and total Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS) scores were compared between each class of medication and its matched-placebo group.
Regression analysis of pooled data did not identify any statistically significant differences between treatment and matched-placebo for any of the four classes. Exploration of the effects of baseline covariates indicated that gender and African American status were associated significantly with outcome. Female gender was consistently associated with poorer outcomes for medication and placebo groups, while the direction of association between African American status and outcome differed by treatment groups. Retention was also examined: dropout rates may have been somewhat higher for placebo than treatment groups during the early active-treatment period. Classification trees were used to identify characteristics of subjects who were abstinent for at least two weeks during the eight-week trial; only 4.0% of females while 17.9% of males achieved this criterion.
Results presented here may prove useful for planning future clinical trials for therapies targeting cocaine dependence.
SourceAvailable from: Walter Ling
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE No medication has been established as an efficacious treatment for cocaine dependence. We hypothesized that dual modulation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system by topiramate-a glutamate receptor antagonist and γ-aminobutyric acid receptor agonist-would result in efficacious treatment for cocaine dependence compared with placebo. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of topiramate vs placebo as a treatment for cocaine dependence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial of 142 cocaine-dependent adults in clinical research facilities at the University of Virginia between November 22, 2005, and July 25, 2011. INTERVENTIONS Topiramate (n = 71) or placebo (n = 71) in escalating doses from 50 mg/d to the target maintenance dose of 300 mg/d in weeks 6 to 12, combined with weekly cognitive-behavioral treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES For the efficacy period, weeks 6 to 12, the primary outcome was the weekly difference from baseline in the proportion of cocaine nonuse days; the secondary outcome was urinary cocaine-free weeks, and exploratory outcomes included craving and self- and observer-rated global functioning on the Clinical Global Impression scales. RESULTS Using an intent-to-treat analysis, topiramate was more efficacious than placebo at increasing the weekly proportion of cocaine nonuse days, irrespective of whether missing data were not or were imputed conservatively to the baseline value (13.3% vs 5.3%, 95% CI for the estimated mean difference, 1.4%-14.6%, P = .02 or 8.9% vs 3.7%, 95% CI for the estimated mean difference, 0.2%-10.1%, P = .04, respectively). Topiramate also was associated, significantly more than placebo, with increasing the likelihood of urinary cocaine-free weeks (16.6% vs 5.8%; odds ratio, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.24-8.32; P = .02), as well as decreasing craving and improving observer-rated global functioning (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Topiramate is more efficacious than placebo at increasing the mean weekly proportion of cocaine nonuse days and associated measures of clinical improvement among cocaine-dependent individuals. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00249691.JAMA Psychiatry 10/2013; 70(12). DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2295 · 12.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bupropion was tested for efficacy to achieve methamphetamine (MA) abstinence in dependent, non-daily users. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 12-week treatment and 4-week follow-up, was conducted with 204 treatment-seeking participants having MA dependence per DSM-IV, who used MA on a less-than-daily basis. 104 were randomized to matched placebo and 100 to bupropion, sustained-release 150mg, twice daily. Participants were seen three times weekly to obtain urine for MA and bupropion assays, study assessments, and thrice weekly, 90-min, group psychotherapy. There was no biomarker for placebo adherence. The primary outcome was achievement of abstinence throughout the last two weeks of treatment; 'success' requiring at least two urine samples during each of Weeks 11 and 12, and all samples MA-negative (<300ng/mL). Bupropion and placebo groups did not differ significantly in the percentage achieving abstinence for the last 2 weeks of treatment (chi-square, p=0.32). Subgroup analysis of participants with lower baseline MA use (≤18 of last 30 days before consent) also revealed no difference in success between groups (p=0.73). Medication adherence per protocol (detectable bupropion, >5ng/mL, in ≥50% of urine samples from Study Weeks 1-10 and ≥66% of urine samples from Weeks 11 to 12) was achieved by 47% of participants taking bupropion. These data indicate that bupropion did not increase abstinence in dependent participants who were using MA less-than-daily. Medication non-adherence was a limitation in this trial. Psychosocial therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for MA dependence. Further research on subgroups who may respond to bupropion may be warranted. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 02/2015; 150. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.036 · 3.28 Impact Factor