Distinct NF-kappaB regulation by shear stress through Ras-dependent IkappaBalpha oscillations: real-time analysis of flow-mediated activation in live cells.
ABSTRACT NF-kappaB, a transcription factor central to inflammatory regulation during development of atherosclerosis, is activated by soluble mediators and through biomechanical inputs such as flow-mediated shear- stress. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying shear stress mediated signal transduction in vascular cells we have developed a system that applies flow-mediated shear stress in a controlled manner, while inserted in a confocal microscope. In combination with GFP-based methods, this allows continuous monitoring of flow induced signal transduction in live cells and in real time. Flow-mediated shear stress, induced using the system, caused a successive increase in NF-kappaB-regulated gene activation. Experiments assessing the mechanisms underlying the NF-kappaB induced activity showed time and flow rate dependent effects on the inhibitor, IkappaBalpha, involving nuclear translocation characterized by a biphasic or cyclic pattern. The effect was observed in both endothelial- and smooth muscle cells, demonstrated to impact noncomplexed IkappaBalpha, and to involve mechanisms distinct from those mediating cytokine signals. In contrast, effects on the NF-kappaB subunit relA were similar to those observed during cytokine stimulation. Further experiments showed the flow induced inter-compartmental transport of IkappaBalpha to be regulated through the Ras GTP-ase, demonstrating a pronounced reduction in the effects following blocking of Ras activity. These studies show that flow-mediated shear stress, regulated by the Ras GTP-ase, uses distinct mechanisms of NF-kappaB control at the molecular level. The oscillatory pattern, reflecting inter-compartmental translocation of IkappaBetaalpha, is likely to have fundamental impact on pathway regulation and on development of shear stress-induced distinct vascular cell phenotypes.
Article: Adaptive generation of multimaterial grids from imaging data for biomedical Lagrangian fluid-structure simulations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spatial discretization of complex imaging- derived fluid-solid geometries, such as the cardiac environment, is a critical but often overlooked challenge in biomechanical computations. This is particularly true in problems with Lagrangian interfaces, where the fluid and solid phases share a common interface geometrically. For simplicity and better accuracy, it is also highly desirable for the two phases to have a matching surface mesh at the interface between them. We outline a method for solving this problem, and illustrate the approach with a 3D fluid-solid mesh of the mouse heart. An MRI dataset of a perfusion-fixed mouse heart with 50 microm isotropic resolution was semi-automatically segmented using a customized multimaterial connected-threshold approach that divided the volume into non-overlapping regions of blood, tissue, and background. Subsequently a multimaterial marching cubes algorithm was applied to the segmented data to produce two detailed, compatible isosurfaces, one for blood and one for tissue. Both isosurfaces were simultaneously smoothed with a multimaterial smoothing algorithm that exactly conserves the volume for each phase. Using these two isosurfaces, we developed and applied novel automated meshing algorithms to generate anisotropic hybrid meshes on arbitrary biological geometries with the number of layers and the desired element anisotropy for each phase as the only input parameters. Since our meshes adapt to the local feature sizes and include boundary layer prisms, they are more efficient and accurate than non-adaptive, isotropic meshes, and the fluid-structure interaction computations will tend to have relative error equilibrated over the whole mesh.Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology 10/2009; 9(2):187-201. · 3.19 Impact Factor