Obesity reduces the expression of GLUT4 in the endometrium of normoinsulinemic women affected by the polycystic ovary syndrome.
ABSTRACT GLUT4 is the most important glucose transporter in insulin-dependent tissues. A decrease of its expression by the adipocytes was reported in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), regardless of obesity and glucose tolerance. In PCOS, abnormal menstrual cycles, abnormal insulin secretory patterns, and obesity, which are risk factors for endometrial diseases, frequently coexist. The endometrial effects of insulin are direct through specific insulin receptors. However, it is unknown whether the endometrium expresses GLUT4 and can be considered an insulin-regulated tissue. In this study, we investigated this question, and we investigated whether obesity modulates this expression in PCOS normoinsulinemic patients. We assayed GLUT4 in the endometrial samples from 18 normoinsulinemic PCOS patients and 9 controls in the advanced follicular phase of the cycle; 10 patients were lean and 8 obese, and all were aged between 23 and 32 years. Most tissue was immediately frozen for RT-PCR; some tissue was saved for histology and immunohistochemistry. GLUT4 mRNA expression was measured in three samples for every patient and expressed as mean +/- SE of an arbitrary unit. In obese PCOS subjects, endometrial GLUT4 expression was significantly lower than in the lean ones (24.0 +/- 6.8 vs. 65.2 +/- 24.4; P < 0.005) and the controls (53.2 +/- 10.7). Lean PCOS and control subjects showed similar values. GLUT4 immunostaining was strong in the epithelial and absent in the stromal cells. We demonstrated endometrial GLUT4 expression. The similar results in lean PCOS and control subjects suggest that endometrial GLUT4 expression is not affected by PCOS itself, whereas it is reduced by obesity in PCOS patients.
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ABSTRACT: While many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are overweight, obese or centrally obese, the effect of excess weight on the outcomes of PCOS is inconsistent. The review aimed to assess the effects of overweight, obesity and central obesity on the reproductive, metabolic and psychological features of PCOS. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and PSYCINFO were searched for studies reporting outcomes according to body mass index categories or body fat distribution. Data were presented as mean difference or risk ratio (95% confidence interval). This review included 30 eligible studies. Overweight or obese women with PCOS had decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), increased total testosterone, free androgen index, hirsutism, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index and worsened lipid profile. Obesity significantly worsened all metabolic and reproductive outcomes measured except for hirsutism when compared to normal weight women with PCOS. Overweight women had no differences in total testosterone, hirsutism, total-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared to normal weight women and no differences in SHBG and total testosterone compared to obese women. Central obesity was associated with higher fasting insulin levels. These results suggest that prevention and treatment of obesity is important for the management of PCOS.Obesity Reviews 10/2012; · 6.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is closely associated with obesity but the prevalence of obesity varies between published studies. The objective of this research was to describe the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity in women with and without PCOS and to assess the confounding effect of ethnicity, geographic regions and the diagnostic criteria of PCOS on the prevalence. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and PSYCINFO were searched for studies reporting the prevalence of overweight, obesity or central obesity in women with and without PCOS. Data were presented as prevalence (%) and risk ratio (RR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]. Random-effect models were used to calculate pooled RR. RESULTS This systematic review included 106 studies while the meta-analysis included 35 studies (15129 women). Women with PCOS had increased prevalence of overweight [RR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.52, 2.50)], obesity [2.77 (1.88, 4.10)] and central obesity [1.73 (1.31, 2.30)] compared with women without PCOS. The Caucasian women with PCOS had a greater increase in obesity prevalence than the Asian women with PCOS compared with women without PCOS [10.79 (5.36, 21.70) versus 2.31 (1.33, 4.00), P < 0.001 between subgroups). CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS had a greater risk of overweight, obesity and central obesity. Although our findings support a positive association between obesity and PCOS, our conclusions are limited by the significant heterogeneity between studies and further studies are now required to determine the source of this heterogeneity. Clinical management of PCOS should include the prevention and management of overweight and obesity.Human Reproduction Update 07/2012; 18(6):618-37. · 9.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The expression of insulin receptor (IR), together with that of glucose transporters 1 and 4 (GLUT1-4) and of Insulin Growth Factor-I and -II (IGF-I,-II) in the endometrium of healthy and young women in both phases of menstrual cycle was assessed. Sixteen out of 20 healthy and normal menstruating volunteers were studied. Endometrial samplings were performed in every subject, twice in the same cycle, during the follicular and luteal phase respectively. The mRNA expression of IR, GLUT1-4, IGF-I and -II were evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunostaining reactions. Our results indicate that IR, GLUT1-4, IGF-I and -II mRNAs were expressed in both phases of the endometrial cycle: GLUT4 and IGF-I mRNA expression were significantly higher in the follicular phase and localized at the epithelial and stromal cell level, respectively, whereas IR, GLUT1 and IGF-II mRNA expression were mostly present in the secretory phase and mainly localized at the stromal level. An inverse tendency of IR and GLUT4 mRNA expression was respectively observed from follicular to luteal phase. In conclusion our data suggest that IR, glucose transporters and IGFs are significantly and differently expressed at the endometrial level throughout the menstrual cycle and that human endometrium cyclically undergoes through a transitory condition from normal to an insulin-resistance state.Gynecological Endocrinology 09/2012; · 1.30 Impact Factor