Electroconvulsive therapy for malignant catatonia in childhood.
ABSTRACT A 13-year-old female is described with presumed viral encephalitis, who developed progressive catatonia, agitation, and autonomic dysfunction. The diagnosis of malignant catatonia was made, and the patient improved with electroconvulsive treatment. This article discusses features, causes, differential diagnosis, and treatment of malignant catatonia. In children with this syndrome, electroconvulsive treatment should be considered.
Psychosomatics 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.psym.2013.03.002 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Catatonia is a unique clinical phenomenon characterized by concurrent motor, emotional, vegetative and behavioral signs. Benzodiazepines (BZD) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can rapidly relieve catatonic signs. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol presented here has been proven to relieve catatonia in schizophrenia within a day. From July 2002 to August 2011, schizophrenic patients requiring psychiatric intervention for catatonia in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were studied by medical chart review. The study used the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS). Patients receiving the lorazepam-diazepam protocol were identified. The survey included 21 patients (eight males and 13 females) with a mean age of 30.3±12.6years. Mean duration of schizophrenia was 4.7±5.6years. Thirteen (61.9%) patients responded within 2h, 18 (85.7%) responded within one day, and all became catatonia-free within a week. Mean BFCRS score was 9.9±3.0 before treatment. Patients that responded with a single intramuscular lorazepam injection had mean BFCRS score of 8.9±2.8, significantly lower than the mean score (11.6±2.5) of the rest of the patients (p=0.034). The lorazepam-diazepam protocol can rapidly relieve retarded catatonia in schizophrenia. Most patients became catatonia-free within one day but some may require up to a week. ECT should be considered if the protocol fails.Comprehensive psychiatry 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.06.003 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to (1) describe the treatment used in a large sample of young inpatients with catatonia, (2) determine which factors were associated with improvement and (3) benzodiazepine (BZD) efficacy. From 1993 to 2011, 66 patients between the ages of 9 and 19 years were consecutively hospitalized for a catatonic syndrome. We prospectively collected sociodemographic, clinical and treatment data. In total, 51 (77 %) patients underwent a BZD trial. BZDs were effective in 33 (65 %) patients, who were associated with significantly fewer severe adverse events (p = 0.013) and resulted in fewer referrals for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (p = 0.037). Other treatments included ECT (N = 12, 18 %); antipsychotic medications, mostly in combination; and treatment of an underlying medical condition, when possible. For 10 patients, four different trials were needed to achieve clinical improvement. When all treatments were combined, there was a better clinical response in acute-onset catatonia (p = 0.032). In contrast, the response was lower in boys (p = 0.044) and when posturing (p = 0.04) and mannerisms (p = 0.008) were present as catatonic symptoms. The treatment response was independent of the underlying psychiatric or systemic medical condition. As in adults, BZDs should be the first-line symptomatic treatment for catatonia in young patients, and ECT should be a second option. Additionally, the absence of an association between the response to treatment and the underlying psychiatric condition suggests that catatonia should be considered as a syndrome.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 08/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0595-y · 3.55 Impact Factor