Diverticular disease affects upwards of 50% of the population over the age of 60 years in Western countries and is becoming more common as the population ages. Studies from the 1970s and 1980s related its occurrence to the use of low-fiber diets and to the prolonged colonic transit time and increased intraluminal pressure associated with low-volume stools. Pulsion diverticula (pseudodiverticula) emerge through the thickened circular layer of the muscularis propria of the left colon at points of penetration of the vasa recta that supply the submucosa and mucosa. Complications of diverticular disease such as hemorrhage, diverticulitis, peridiverticular abscess, fistula, and perforation are well recognized. More recently, attention has been drawn to the polypoid prolapsing mucosal folds that may develop as the affected segment of bowel (usually the sigmoid) becomes shorter and to changes in the mucosa surrounding the diverticula and in the bowel wall that may result in confusion with ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease (sigmoid colitis-associated diverticulosis [SCAD]). Distinguishing SCAD from these entities is extremely important, and pathologists should be aware of the possibility of overdiagnosing chronic inflammatory bowel disease in biopsies or resection specimens of sigmoid colon with diverticular disease.
"Over the last several decades, researchers have evaluated different pathophysiological causes of colonic diverticulosis using epidemiological as well as basic research. The pathogenesis of colonic diverticula has multiple factors, including age-associated alterations in the colonic wall,2,4,5 dietary fiber intake,3,6-8 motor dysfunction,9 genetic influences,3,10,11 altered colonic motility12 and abnormal intraluminal pressure.13 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High intraluminal pressure has been reported to cause left colonic diverticula. However, the pathophysiology of right colonic diverticula is still unclear. Methane gas has been reported to delay small intestinal transit and to increase intraluminal pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between right colonic diverticula and intestinal gas produced by enteric bacteria.
Lactulose breath tests were performed in 30 patients who were diagnosed with right colonic diverticula via colonoscopy. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adults with no specific symptoms or medical histories. A hydrogen or methane producer was defined in 2 ways: either one that exhibited a breath hydrogen level ≥ 20 ppm (methane ≥ 10 ppm) baseline or one that exhibited an increase in breath hydrogen ≥ 20 ppm (methane ≥ 10 ppm) above baseline within the first 90 minutes of the test.
The lactulose breath test (LBT) positivity in the diverticular group and the control group were 40.0% and 33.3%, respectively, without a statistically significant difference. The concentrations of methane and hydrogen gas measured by LBT increased over time, but there was no significant difference between the control and the diverticular groups.
There was no significant relationship between right colonic diverticula and intestinal gases produced by enteric bacteria. However, time-dependent formation of diverticula should be taken into consideration, therefore long-term, large-scale follow-up studies may reveal further pathogenesis of right colonic diverticulosis.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 10/2010; 16(4):418-23. DOI:10.5056/jnm.2010.16.4.418 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to compare outcomes between laparoscopic and open surgery for patients with diverticular disease by using meta-analytic techniques.
Comparative studies published between 1996 and 2004 of open vs. laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease were included. The end points that were evaluated are operative and functional outcomes and adverse events. A random effects model was used during analysis of these outcomes; heterogeneity was assessed and sensitivity analysis was performed to account for bias in patient selection.
Twelve nonrandomized studies, incorporating 19,608 patients, were included in the analysis. One study with 18,444 patients accounted for 94.5 percent of the total sample. Laparoscopic surgery resulted in reduced infective (odds ratio, 0.61; P = 0.01), pulmonary (odds ratio, 0.4; P < 0.001), gastrointestinal tract (odds ratio, 0.75; P = 0.03), and cardiovascular complications (odds ratio, 0.28; P = 0.0008) with no significant heterogeneity. Operative time was longer with laparoscopic surgery (weighted mean difference, 67.59; P = 0.04), and length of stay was significantly shorter (weighted mean difference, -3.81; P < 0.0001); however, these outcomes demonstrated significant heterogeneity. These results remained significant throughout all the sensitivity analyses except when evaluating high-quality studies (when the study with 18,444 patients was excluded), in which only blood loss and length of stay were significantly in favor of the laparoscopic group.
The results for patients selected for laparoscopic surgery compared with open surgery for diverticular disease are equivalent with a potential reduction in complications and hospital stay. Laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease performed by appropriately experienced surgeons in the elective setting may be safe and feasible; because of the potential of significant bias arising from the included studies, a randomized, controlled trial is recommended.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 05/2006; 49(4):446-63. DOI:10.1007/s10350-005-0316-1 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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