The three-phase model of cardiac arrest as applied to ventricular fibrillation in a large, urban emergency medical services system.
ABSTRACT Cardiac arrest is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, with consistently poor outcomes despite the rapid availability of prehospital personnel for defibrillation attempts in patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF). Recent evidence suggests a period of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) prior to defibrillation attempts may improve outcomes in patients with moderate time since collapse (4-10 min).
To determine cardiac arrest outcomes in our community and explore the relationship between time since collapse, performance of bystander CPR, and survival.
Non-traumatic cardiac arrest data were collected prospectively over an 18-month period. Patients were excluded for: age <18 years, a "Do Not Attempt Resuscitation" (DNAR) directive, determination of a non-cardiac etiology for arrest, and an initially recorded rhythm other than VF. Patients were stratified by time since collapse (<4, 4-10, > 10 min, and unknown) and compared with regard to survival and neurological outcome. In addition, patients with and without bystander CPR were compared with regard to survival.
: A total of 1141 adult non-traumatic cardiac arrest victims were identified over the 18-month study period. This included 272 patients with VF as the initially recorded rhythm. Of these, 185 had a suspected cardiac etiology for the arrest; survival to hospital discharge was 15% in this group, with 82% of these having a good outcome or only moderate disability. Survival was highest among patients with time since collapse of less than 4 min and decreased with increasing time since collapse. There were no survivors among patients with time since collapse greater than 10 min. Among patients with time since collapse of 4 min or longer, survival was significantly higher with the performance of bystander CPR; there was no survival advantage to bystander CPR among patients with time since collapse less than 4 min.
The performance of bystander CPR prior to defibrillation by EMS personnel is associated with improved survival among patients with time since collapse longer than 4 min but not less than 4 min. These data are consistent with the three-phase model of cardiac arrest.
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ABSTRACT: AIM: As recent clinical data suggest a harmful effect of arterial hyperoxia on patients after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA), we aimed to investigate this association during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the earliest and one of the most crucial phases of recirculation. METHODS: We analysed 1015 patients who from 2003-2010 underwent out-of-hospital CPR administered by emergency medical services serving 300,000 inhabitants. Inclusion criteria for further analysis were nontraumatic background of CA and patients >18 years of age. One hundred and forty-five arterial blood gas analyses including oxygen partial pressure (paO2) measurement were obtained during CPR. RESULTS: We observed a highly significant increase in hospital admission rates associated with increases in paO2 in steps of 100mmHg (13.3kPa).Subsequently, data were clustered according to previously described cutoffs (≤60mmHg [8kPa],], 61-300mmHg [8.1-40kPa], >300mmHg [> 40kPa]). Baseline variables (age, sex, initial rhythm, rate of bystander CPR and collapse-to-CPR time) of the three compared groups did not differ significantly. Rates of hospital admission after CA were 18.8%, 50.6% and 83.3%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, logistic regression revealed significant prognostic value for paO2 and the duration of CPR. CONCLUSION: This study presents novel human data on the arterial paO2 during CPR in conjunction with the rate of hospital admission. We describe a significantly increased rate of hospital admission associated with increasing paO2. We found that the previously described potentially harmful effects of hyperoxia after return of spontaneous circulation were not reproduced for paO2 measured during CPR.Resuscitation 01/2013; · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The induction of deep cerebral hypothermia via ice-cold saline aortic flush during prolonged ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest, followed by hypothermic stasis and delayed resuscitation (emergency preservation and resuscitation), improved neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest in pigs, as compared to conventional resuscitation. We hypothesized that emergency preservation and resuscitation with chest compressions would further improve outcome in the same model. Prospective experimental study. University research laboratory. : Twenty-four female, large, white breed pigs (27-37 kg). Fifteen minutes of ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest were followed by 20 mins of resuscitation with chest compressions (control, n = 8), deep cerebral hypothermia via 200 mL/kg 4 degrees C saline aortic flush and hypothermic stasis (emergency preservation and resuscitation, n = 8), and emergency preservation and resuscitation combined with chest compressions (emergency preservation and resuscitation plus chest compressions, n = 8). At 35 mins after cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated, followed by defibrillation. Mild hypothermia was continued for 20 hrs. Pigs were evaluated after 9 days using a neurologic deficit (neurologic deficit score: 100% = brain dead; 0%-10% = normal) and an overall performance category score (overall performance category score: 1 = normal; 2 = slightly handicapped; 3 = severely handicapped; 4 = comatose; 5 = dead/brain dead). Brain temperature decreased from 38.5 degrees C to 15.3 degrees C +/- 3.3 degrees C in the emergency preservation and resuscitation group, and to 11.3 degrees C +/- 1.2 degrees C in the emergency preservation and resuscitation plus chest compressions group. In the control group, restoration of spontaneous circulation was achieved in four out of eight pigs, and one survived to 9 days. In the emergency preservation and resuscitation group, restoration of spontaneous circulation was achieved in seven out of eight pigs and five survived; in the emergency preservation and resuscitation plus chest compressions group, all had restoration of spontaneous circulation and seven survived (restoration of spontaneous circulation, p = .08). Neurologic outcome for (median and interquartile range) the control group included overall performance category score of 3, neurologic deficit score of 45%; for the emergency preservation and resuscitation group, overall performance category score was 3 (2-5) and neurologic deficit score was 45% (36; 50) and in the emergency preservation and resuscitation plus chest compressions group, overall performance category score was 2 (1-3) and neurologic deficit score was 13% (5; 21) (overall performance category score, p = .04; neurologic deficit score emergency preservation and resuscitation vs. emergency preservation and resuscitation plus chest compressions, p = .003). Emergency preservation and resuscitation by deep cerebral hypothermia combined with chest compressions during prolonged cardiac arrest in pigs are feasible and improve neurologic outcome.Critical care medicine 08/2010; 38(8):1637-43. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac arrest physiology has been proposed to occur in three distinct phases: electrical, circulatory and metabolic. There is limited research evaluating the relationship of the 3-phase model of cardiac arrest to functional survival at hospital discharge. Furthermore, the effect of post-cardiac arrest targeted temperature management (TTM) on functional survival during each phase is unknown.Resuscitation 08/2014; · 4.10 Impact Factor