Characteristics of human calicivirus enteritis in intestinal transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT The human caliciviruses, which include Norwalk-like viruses (or Noroviruses) and Sapporo viruses, commonly cause epidemic and endemic viral gastroenteritis of short duration in healthy individuals. However, the impact of human calicivirus in immunosuppressed populations has not been established. The authors report five pediatric patients who developed human calicivirus enteritis after intestinal transplantation.
Infection was documented with repetitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing with nucleotide sequencing of tissue and lumen fluid specimens.
A single strain, type Miami Beach, affected all patients in the hospital with an apparent index case. A potential mode of transmission was not defined. Severe osmotic or secretory diarrhea necessitated intravenous fluid therapy for 40 days or more in three of the five infants. Concurrent or recent subclinical allograft infection with adenovirus in two patients was associated with more severe symptoms. Virus excretion exceeded 80 days in two patients. Differentiation of human calicivirus enteritis from allograft rejection was difficult, as both disorders were associated with increased enterocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Intensification of immunosuppressive therapy because of suspected rejection appeared to prolong symptoms.
These findings demonstrate that human calicivirus can be a significant pathogen in intestinal transplant recipients and potentially in other immunocompromised patients.
Article: Chronic diarrhea associated with persistent norovirus excretion in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: report of two cases.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic diarrhea in patients treated with immunosuppressive agents or suffering from immunosuppressive disease can represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician. Norovirus infection, a major cause of acute epidemic diarrhea, has been described as a cause of chronic diarrhea in patients who are immunosuppressed, including transplant recipients and the very young. We describe two patients, a 64 year-old man and a 59 year-old woman, both suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hypogammaglobulinemia, who developed chronic diarrhea resistant to therapy. In both cases, after months of symptoms, persistent norovirus infection--documented by repeatedly-positive high-sensitivity stool enzyme immunoassay--was found to be the cause. Both patients died with active diarrheal symptoms. We describe the first cases of advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia to suffer from chronic symptomatic norovirus infection. Clinicians caring for such patients, particularly those with concomitant hypogammaglobulinema, who have chronic unexplained diarrhea, should consider norovirus infection in the differential diagnosis.BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2011; 11:131. · 3.12 Impact Factor
Article: Diversity of murine norovirus strains isolated from asymptomatic mice of different genetic backgrounds within a single U.S. research institute.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antibody prevalence studies in laboratory mice indicate that murine norovirus (MNV) infections are common, but the natural history of these viruses has not been fully established. This study examined the extent of genetic diversity of murine noroviruses isolated from healthy laboratory mice housed in multiple animal facilities within a single, large research institute- the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIAID-NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, U.S. Ten distinct murine norovirus strains were isolated from various tissues and feces of asymptomatic wild type sentinel mice as well as asymptomatic immunodeficient (RAG 2(-/-)) mice. The NIH MNV isolates showed little cytopathic effect in permissive RAW264.7 cells in early passages, but all isolates examined could be adapted to efficient growth in cell culture by serial passage. The viruses, although closely related in genome sequence, were distinguishable from each other according to facility location, likely due to the introduction of new viruses into each facility from separate sources or vendors at different times. Our study indicates that the murine noroviruses are widespread in these animal facilities, despite rigorous guidelines for animal care and maintenance.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e21435. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Astrovirus infection in hospitalized infants with severe combined immunodeficiency after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infants with severe primary combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and children post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are extremely susceptible to unusual infections. The lack of generic tools to detect disease-causing viruses among more than 200 potential human viral pathogens represents a major challenge to clinicians and virologists. We investigated retrospectively the causes of a fatal disseminated viral infection with meningoencephalitis in an infant with gamma C-SCID and of chronic gastroenteritis in 2 other infants admitted for HSCT during the same time period. Analysis was undertaken by combining cell culture, electron microscopy and sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) techniques. Caco-2 cells inoculated with fecal samples developed a cytopathic effect and non-enveloped viral particles in infected cells were detected by electron microscopy. SISPA led to the identification of astrovirus as the pathogen. Both sequencing of the capsid gene and the pattern of infection suggested nosocomial transmission from a chronically excreting index case to 2 other patients leading to fatal infection in 1 and to transient disease in the others. Virus-specific, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was then performed on different stored samples to assess the extent of infection. Infection was associated with viremia in 2 cases and contributed to death in 1. At autopsy, viral RNA was detected in the brain and different other organs, while immunochemistry confirmed infection of gastrointestinal tissues. This report illustrates the usefulness of the combined use of classical virology procedures and modern molecular tools for the diagnosis of unexpected infections. It illustrates that astrovirus has the potential to cause severe disseminated lethal infection in highly immunocompromised pediatric patients.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27483. · 4.09 Impact Factor