Administration of first hospital antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: does timeliness affect outcomes?
ABSTRACT Associations between processes of care for hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia patients and clinical outcomes are important because of the high incidence of such admissions and substantial related mortality. Several studies have examined these associations.
Large retrospective studies of older patients have demonstrated associations between time to first dose as short as 4 h and length of stay and mortality during and after hospitalization. Results of smaller studies have been less consistent. The association appears to be strongest among older patients who have not received antibiotics prior to arrival at the hospital.
A significant and causal relationship appears to exist between antibiotic timing and improved outcomes, especially among older patients. Even modest improvements in timeliness of antibiotic administration could impact a substantial number of lives because of the high incidence of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the promptness of antibiotic administration to patients presenting with sepsis and the effects on survival and length of hospitalization. Consecutive, adult patients presenting with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) to the emergency department of the Aga Khan University hospital were enrolled in a prospective, observational study over a period of 4 months. Univariate, multivariate regression modeling and one-way ANOVA were used to examine the effects of various variables on survival and for significant differences between timing of antibiotic administration and survival, two-sided p values < 0.05 were considered significant. One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled. Severe sepsis was present in 52% patients; the most frequent organism isolated was Salmonella typhi (18%). Overall mortality was 35.1%. One hundred (90.1%) patients received intravenous antibiotics in the Emergency room; average time from triage to actual administration was 2.48 +/- 1.86 hours. The timing of antibiotic administration was significantly associated with survival (F statistic 2.17, p = 0.003). Using a Cox Regression model, we were able to demonstrate that survival dropped acutely with every hourly delay in antibiotic administration. On multivariate analysis, use of vasopressors (adjusted OR 23.89, 95% CI 2.16,263, p = 0.01) and Escherichia coli sepsis (adjusted OR 6.22, 95% CI 1.21,32, p = 0.03) were adversely related with mortality. We demonstrated that in the population presenting to our emergency room, each hourly delay in antibiotic administration was associated with an increase in mortality.Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC 21(4):106-10.
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic landscape of sepsis is no longer confined to the intensive care unit: many patients from other portals of entry to care, both outside and within the hospital, progress to severe disease. Approaches that have led to improved outcomes with other diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, stroke and trauma) can now be similarly applied to sepsis. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of severe sepsis and septic shock has led to the development of new therapies that place importance on early identification and aggressive management. This review emphasizes approaches to the early recognition, diagnosis and therapeutic management of sepsis, giving the clinician the most contemporary and practical approaches with which to treat these patients.Canadian Medical Association Journal 11/2005; 173(9):1054-65. DOI:10.1503/cmaj.050632 · 5.81 Impact Factor