Administration of first hospital antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: does timeliness affect outcomes?
ABSTRACT Associations between processes of care for hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia patients and clinical outcomes are important because of the high incidence of such admissions and substantial related mortality. Several studies have examined these associations.
Large retrospective studies of older patients have demonstrated associations between time to first dose as short as 4 h and length of stay and mortality during and after hospitalization. Results of smaller studies have been less consistent. The association appears to be strongest among older patients who have not received antibiotics prior to arrival at the hospital.
A significant and causal relationship appears to exist between antibiotic timing and improved outcomes, especially among older patients. Even modest improvements in timeliness of antibiotic administration could impact a substantial number of lives because of the high incidence of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization.
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ABSTRACT: Aims: This study evaluated guideline concordance and time to administration of antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a private Australian emergency department (ED). Two key components in the management of CAP are timely administration and appropriate choice of antibiotic therapy. The use of antibiotics outside of guidelines can potentially increase rates of antibiotic resistance. Previous studies that evaluate guideline concordance have largely been conducted in Australian public hospitals; however, private hospitals comprise a significant portion of Australian health care. Methods: One hundred and thirty patients admitted to a private Brisbane hospital between 01/01/2011 and 28/03/2012 with an admission diagnosis of CAP were included. Data were collected on administration time and choice of antibiotic therapy in the ED. This was compared with local and national CAP guidelines. Results: Concordance with antibiotic guidelines was low (6.9%). Antibiotics with broader spectrum of action than that recommended in guidelines were frequently prescribed. Eighty-one percent of patients received their first antibiotic within 4 hours of arriving in the ED. Mortality was low at 0.9% in a cohort where 31% of patients were aged under 65. Conclusions: We found low rates of concordance with CAP antibiotic guidelines and high use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. This has the potential to lead to increased rates of antibiotic resistance. A subtle alteration to the restrictions within the pharmaceutical benefit scheme formulary could potentially decrease the high usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, the low mortality rate, nontoxic nature of these antibiotics, and the ease of their administration pose a challenge to convincing clinicians to alter their practice.Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 06/2014; DOI:10.1089/mdr.2014.0064 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of antibiotic prior to surgery is widely accepted. The WHO has recommended the use of ATC/DDD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical / Defined Daily Dose) for the analysis of drug utilization. The aims of the present study are 1) to analyze the assessment of prophylactic antibiotic usage prior to surgery, 2) to assess the drug administration based on antibiograms and 3) to compare the results with the national and international standards. The present study used ATC/DDD, in a retrospective manner. Cefazolin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, vancomycin, imipenem and penicillin G from 21st March to 21st June 2011 were analyzed in a hospital. Out of 516 medical records, 384 patients had received prophylactic antibiotics. In comparison, the orthopaedic ward had used more antibiotics. The results showed that antibiotics were not selected based on the antibiogram antibiotic programs. Patients in the age range of 20-30 years were the most recipients of the antibiotics. Men had received more antibiotic in comparison with women. About 75% (384 out of 516) of patients in the study received antibiotics as prophylaxis. Cefazolin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. Our findings showed differences in comparison with national and international studies, but insignificant differences. Data on in-hospital antibiotic usage are varying widely not only due to different antibiotic policies but also due to different methods of mesurement. These differences make the comparison difficult.Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran 01/2014; 28:66.
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ABSTRACT: The synchronization of nursing and pharmacy workflows are essential for rapid and safe initiation of medication therapy. This study describes the situation in a Canadian hospital where the time to initial dose was considered to be too high although both nursing and pharmacy personnel worked hard to ensure the standards and quality of their services. After an in-depth review of the medication ordering workflows in four care units and the analysis of processes in the pharmacy the causes of problem were identified and remedied. The study revealed significant process variations and differences in the metrics used by nursing and pharmacy in measuring turnover times. Workflow enhancements, synchronization of the metrics, matching demand with supply and increased communications resulted in a 66% reduction in the time to initial dose bringing the latter under control. This translated into faster and safer initiation of medication therapy for patients and better morale in both nursing and pharmacy personnel.