Article

Brain regions showing increased activation by threat-related words in panic disorder

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
Neuroreport (Impact Factor: 1.64). 04/2003; 14(3):325-8. DOI: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000059776.23521.25
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Threat-related stimuli consistently activate the posterior cingulate cortex in normal subjects and have exaggerated effects on memory in patients with panic disorder. We hypothesized that panic patients would show increased response to threat-related stimuli in the posterior cingulate cortex. While undergoing fMRI, six panic patients and eight healthy volunteers made valence judgements of threat-related and neutral words. Both groups showed threat-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and left middle frontal cortices, but the activation was significantly greater in panic patients. Panic patients also had more right>left asymmetry of activation in the mid-parahippocampal region. The increased responsivity observed in the posterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices is consistent with the hypothesis that panic disorder patients engage in more extensive memory processing of threat-related stimuli.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
89 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:131. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00131 · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Panic disorder (PD) is a pluridimensional condition that leads to psychological suffering. Due to advances in neuroimaging techniques, important contributions have been made in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of PD. However, because of diverging research designs and protocols, more conclusive data concerning the neurocircuitry of PD remain difficult to achieve. To address this issue, a bibliographical search was performed using the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science and Medline/PubMed databases. Fifteen articles were found, and their research methodology including sample, comorbidity, gender, and pharmacological criteria were explored. Although current functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of PD constitute fundamental tools for health sciences, more uniform research protocols must be implemented to provide more consistent and conclusive data concerning the neural substrates of PD.
    Psychology and Neuroscience 12/2011; 4(3):391-407. DOI:10.3922/j.psns.2011.3.013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Cerebral blood flow has been well studied in patients with panic disorder, but only few studies analyzed the mechanisms underlying the onset of a panic attack. The aim of the present study was to monitor the cerebral hemodynamics modifications during a panic attack. Materials and Methods. 10 panic disorder patients with recent onset, fully drug naïve, were compared to 13 patients with panic disorder with a previous history of treatment and to 14 controls. A continuous bilateral monitoring of mean flow velocities in right and left middle cerebral arteries was performed by transcranial Doppler. Clomipramine was chosen as challenge. Results. Eight out of 10 patients drug naïve and 6 control subjects out of 13 had a full blown panic attack during the test, whereas none of the patients with a history of treatment panicked. The occurrence of a panic attack was accompanied by a rapid decrease of flow velocities in both right and left middle cerebral arteries. Discussion. The bilateral acute decrease of mean flow velocity during a panic attack suggests the vasoconstriction of the microcirculation of deep brain structures perfused by middle cerebral arteries and involved in the so-called "fear circuitry," thus suggesting that cerebral homeostatic dysfunctions seem to have a key role in the onset of a panic attack.
    01/2014; 2014:296862. DOI:10.1155/2014/296862

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from