Identification of Src-specific phosphorylation site on focal adhesion kinase: Dissection of the role of Src SH2 and catalytic functions and their consequences for tumor cell behavior
ABSTRACT Src tyrosine kinase expression and activity are elevated during colon cancer progression. How this contributes to the malignant phenotype is not fully understood. We show that in KM12C colon carcinoma cells, expression of kinase-deficient Src proteins (SrcMF and Src251) does not alter cell growth. Src kinase activity is required for turnover of cell-matrix adhesions and, in particular, the Src-dependent phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is required for their disassembly. Surprisingly, we found that expression of SrcMF or Src251 resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK on Tyr(407), Tyr(576), Tyr(577), and Tyr(861), which are considered to be Src kinase substrates. This Src kinase-independent phosphorylation of FAK required an intact Src SH2 domain that mediates association of Src and FAK at peripheral adhesions. Use of a novel highly potent and selective Src kinase inhibitor AP23464 combined with experiments in Src/Fyn/Yes-deficient fibroblasts showed that increased phosphorylation of FAK in cells expressing SrcMF did not require Src-like kinases. However, specific phosphorylation on Tyr(925) of FAK was not evident in SrcMF- or Src251-expressing cells, and lack of Src kinase-dependent phosphorylation on this site was associated with impaired adhesion turnover. Our data show that Src kinase activity is required for adhesion turnover associated with cell migration in cancer cells and that, in addition to the catalytic activity, Src also acts as an adaptor to recruit other kinases that can phosphorylate key substrates including FAK. These studies have implications for tumor progression with respect to the use of Src kinase inhibitors.
SourceAvailable from: Renato Socodato[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microglial cells are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Their function is essential for neuronal tissue homeostasis. After inflammatory stimuli, microglial cells become activated changing from a resting and highly ramified cell shape to an amoeboid-like morphology. These morphological changes are associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and glutamate, as well as with high phagocytic activity. The acquisition of such phenotype has been associated with activation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, including those of the Src family (SFKs). In this study, using both in vivo and in vitro inflammation models coupled to FRET-based time-lapse microscopy, lentiviruses-mediated shRNA delivery and genetic gain-of-function experiments, we demonstrate that among SFKs c-Src function is necessary and sufficient for triggering microglia pro-inflammatory signature, glutamate release, microglia-induced neuronal loss and phagocytosis. c-Src inhibition in retinal neuroinflammation experimental paradigms consisting of intravitreal injection of LPS or ischemia-reperfusion injury significantly reduced microglia activation changing their morphology to a more resting phenotype and prevented neuronal apoptosis. Our data demonstrate an essential role for c-Src in microglial cell activation.Glia 03/2015; 63(3). DOI:10.1002/glia.22767 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Germ cells require communication with associated somatic cells for normal gametogenesis, as exemplified by an oocyte that interacts with granulosa cells via paracrine factors as well as gap junctions located at sites of contact between these two cell types. The objective of the present study was to define the mechanisms by which cell-cell contact with the oocyte is controlled and to determine the extent that the oocyte actively participates in this association. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), a focal adhesion kinase, was found to be activated at sites of contact between the oocyte and trans-zonal cell processes from the surrounding granulosa cells. In order to determine the functional significance of oocyte-derived PTK2 signaling in oocyte-follicle communication, an oocyte-specific Ptk2 knockout was produced through a breeding strategy pairing a floxed Ptk2-CAT-eGFP mouse with the Zp3-Cre line. Since Ptk2-null mice never develop to birth, this represents the first opportunity to define the role of PTK2 in oocyte-follicle communication. Ablation of Ptk2 within the developing oocyte resulted in lower fertility with reduced numbers of pups, lower rates of blastocyst formation, and reduced cell numbers per blastocyst. Follicles containing Ptk2-null oocytes exhibited reduced oocyte diameter, reduced numbers of connexin 37 and 43 foci at the oocyte surface, and impaired dye coupling between oocyte and granulosa cells. These findings are consistent with a model in which PTK2 plays a critical role in establishing or maintaining oocyte-granulosa cell contacts that are essential for gap junction-mediated communication between granulosa cells and the oocyte. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Molecular Reproduction and Development 02/2015; 82(2). DOI:10.1002/mrd.22446 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β triggers the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells via well-orchestrated crosstalk between Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin. Since EMT-induced motility and invasion play a critical role in cancer metastasis, EMT-related molecules are emerging as novel targets of anti-cancer therapies. Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) has recently been considered as a first-in-class anti-cancer target molecule to regulate Wnt signaling pathway, but pharmacologic inhibition of its EMT activity has not yet been studied. Here, using 5-(4-methylbenzamido)-2-(phenylamino)thiazole-4-carboxamide (KY-05009) with TNIK-inhibitory activity, its efficacy to inhibit EMT in cancer cells was validated. The molecular docking/binding study revealed the binding of KY-05009 in the hinge region of TNIK, and the inhibitory activity of KY-05009 against TNIK was confirmed by an ATP competition assay (Ki, 100 nM). In A549 cells, KY-05009 significantly and strongly inhibited the TGF-β-activated EMT through the attenuation of Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways, including the Wnt, NF-κB, FAK-Src-paxillin-related focal adhesion, and MAP kinases (ERK and JNK) signaling pathways. Continuing efforts to identify and validate potential therapeutic targets associated with EMT, such as TNIK, provide new and improved therapies for treating and/or preventing EMT-based disorders, such as cancer metastasis and fibrosis.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110180. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110180 · 3.53 Impact Factor